Department of English

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A Guide For Creative Thinking

Thu Sep 17, 2009 3:12 am by BHSoft

A Guide For Creative Thinking by Brian Tracy
Einstein once said, “Every child is born a genius.” But the reason why most people do not function at genius levels is because they are not aware of how creative and smart they really are.I call it the “Schwarzenegger effect.” No one would look at a person such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and think how lucky he is to have been born with such …


Africain Literature

Wed Mar 04, 2009 8:15 pm by Lily

Things Fall Apart is a 1959 English-language novel by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. It is a staple book in schools throughout Africa and widely read and studied in English-speaking countries around the world. It is seen as the archetypal modern African novel in English, and one of the first African novels written in English to receive global critical acclaim. The title of the novel comes from [url=http://www.answers.com/topic/william-butler-yeats-3]


Algeria's Newspapers ...

Wed Mar 04, 2009 1:11 pm by Lily

study study study study



http://www.algeria press.com/
http://www.algeria press.com/alkhabar.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elwatan.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/echoroukonline.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elmoudjahid.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/liberte.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/horizons.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/el-massa.htm
[url=http://www.algeria-press.com/ech-chaab.htm]…


Algerian Vote

Thu Apr 09, 2009 12:39 pm by Lily

Algerians are voting in a presidential election which opposition groups have described as a charade.












American English

Fri Mar 13, 2009 4:00 pm by Maria

Going to is pronounced GONNA when it is used to show the future. But it is never reduced when it means going from one place to another.

We're going to grab a bite to eat. = We're gonna grab a bite to eat.
I'm going to the office tonight. = I'm going to the office tonight.

2. Want to and want a are both pronounced WANNA and wants to is pronounced WANSTA. Do you want to can also be reduced …

American Slangs

Sat Mar 21, 2009 8:54 pm by Maria

airhead: stupid person.
"Believe it or not, Dave can sometimes act like an airhead!"

amigo: friend (from Spanish).
"I met many amigos at Dave's ESL Cafe."

ammunition: toilet paper.
"Help! We're completely out of ammunition!"

antifreeze: alcohol.
"I'm going to need a lot of antifreeze tonight!"

armpit: dirty, unappealing place.


An Introduction to the British Civilization

Wed Nov 18, 2009 10:54 am by Maria

University of Batna First Year
English Department G: 6-7-8-9
General Culture

[center]An Introduction to the British Civilization

*The United Kingdom :

Full Name : The UK's full and official name is the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".

Location: The United Kingdom (UK) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country …

Announcements and News

Thu Mar 05, 2009 2:55 am by Lily


"Dear students , we would like to inform you that , from now on , your marks can be consulted through your Website ...Let's surf ! bounce bounce Wink

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

Sun Apr 12, 2009 11:32 pm by Lily

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

The process of applying for a research studentship begins with the identification of a potential supervisor. If you already know a staffmember who is willing to work with you to develop a research proposal,please start by contacting them. If you do not have a supervisor inmind already, …



    Syllables Structure

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    The Syllable and Phonotactic Constraints

    Post by Lily on Fri May 15, 2009 6:50 pm

    The Syllable and Phonotactic Constraints
    Jonathan Harrington and Felicity Cox
    Phonotactic Constraints
    We have seen in the preceding section that all languages build their words from a finite set of phonemic units. It is also true that in all languages there are constraints on the way in which these phonemes can be arranged to form syllables. These constraints are sometimes known as phonotactic or phoneme sequence constraints and they severely limit the number of syllables that would be theoretically possible if phonemes could be combined in an unconstrained way. Some simple examples of phonotactic constraints in English include: all three-consonant clusters at the beginning of a word start with /s/ ('sprint', 'squire', 'stew' etc); nasal consonants cannot occur as the second consonant in word-initial consonant clusters unless the first consonant is /s/ (e.g. there are no words in English than begin with /bm dn/ etc), although this is certainly possible in other languages (e.g. German which allows /kn/ in words like 'Knoten', meaning 'knot' - we can see from the spelling that English used to allow this sequence as well). Another important point about phonotactic constraints is that they vary from language to language, as this example of English and German has just shown.We will consider firstly why languages have phonotactic constraints. The main reason is to do with the limits on the talker's ability to pronounce sequences of sounds as one syllable, and the listener's perception of how many syllables he or she hears from a given sequence of phonemes. Consider for example a sequence like /pʁ/ i.e. a voiceless bilabial followed by a voiced uvular fricative. Most of us with some training can produce this sequence (e.g. /pʁa pʁit/ etc.) as a monosyllabic word even though it doesn't occur in English. Now try reversing the order of the cluster. With some phonetics training, you could almost certainly produce /ʁp/, but what is much harder (even for a trained phonetician) is to produce the sequence before a vowel such that the resulting sequence is monosyllabic. For example, try /ʁpi/ -- even your best attempts at producing the /ʁ/ followed by the /p/ will probably still lead to a percept of two syllables when /ʁp/ precedes a vowel.One of the main reasons, then, why languages have phonotactic constraints is because their sequential arrangement is itself a cue to the number of syllables in a word. When we produce an English word like 'print' for example, we want to convey to the listener not only that this word is composed of a certain number and type of phonemes, but also that the word happens to be monosyllabic: and the listeners' perception of how many syllables there are in a word depends to a certain extent on the arrangement of phonemes in sequence, as we saw from the example of /pʁ/ and /ʁp/ that has just been given.In order to explain why listeners hear e.g. /pʁi/ as one syllable, but /ʁpi/ as two, we need to appeal to what has been called the syllable's sonority profile.
    Sonority Profile
    Sonority is an acoustic-perceptual term that depends on the ratio of energy in the low to the high part of the spectrum, but it is also closely linked with the extent to which the vocal tract is constricted. In general terms, open vowels like [a] have the highest sonority because the vocal tract is open and a large amount of acoustic energy radiates from the vocal tract. At the other extreme, voiceless oral stops have least sonority because there is no acoustic energy during the closure in which the vocal tract is constricted. Languages prefer to build syllables with the most vowel-like sounds nearer the middle, and the least vowel like sounds (=oral stops, voiceless fricatives) near the edge(s). Syllable structured in this way are said to conform to the sonority profile.
    i.e. oral stops are less sonorous than fricatives which are less sonorous than nasals etc. If they conform to the sonority profile, consonants sequences in syllable onsets increase in sonority from left to right and consonant sequences in syllable codas decrease in sonority from left to right. From this we can predict which consonant sequences are more probable for syllable onsets and codas.

    probable
    /pla fni lju sma
    pfle/
    /alp ims ort/
    less probable
    /lpa nfi jlu
    lfpe/
    /apl ism otr/

    Why? The syllables on the right have two sonority peaks -- and so it's much more difficult to produce them so that they sound like one syllable…for example:
    So a language is more likely to build monosyllabic words from the combination of phonemes on the left than on the right.
    Languages prefer to build syllables from phonemes such that the sonority rises from the left syllable edge, then reaches a peak (at the vowel), and then falls. Therefore, a language is more likely to have a syllable like /pla/ than /lpa/, because in /pla/ the sonority rises from its lowest value for /p/, increasing for /l/, and reaching a peak with /a/. Similarly, a language is more likely to have /amp/ than /apm/. We can now see why listeners might hear two syllables in /ʁpa/ even if a talker intends only one:
    because the sonority is higher for /ʁ/ (since it is a fricative), then falls for /p/, then rises again for /a/ (and the condition to hear one syllable would be that there is a progressive rise in sonority from the syllable's left edge).It must be recognised that there is only a tendency for syllables to conform to the sonority profile. So while most syllables do conform to the sonority profile in English, many syllables that contain a consonantal cluster with /s/ do not. An example of a syllable that does conform to the sonority profile is 'flounce', phonemically /flæɔns/ in (Australian) English. In the initial consonant cluster, /f/ is less sonorous than /l/ which is less sonorous than the diphthong; in the final consonant cluster, the diphthong is more sonorous than /n/ which is more sonorous than /s/ and so the sonority rises from the left edge of the syllable, reaches a peak at the diphthong, and then falls over the final cluster. But a word like 'spin' violates the sonority profile (because /s/ is more sonorous than /p/) and so does 'act' (because /k/ and /t/ are equally sonorous). The sonority profile is therefore a general tendency which determines many, but by no means, all phonotactic constraints.
    Phonotactic Constraints: Syllable Onset, Coda and Rhyme
    When discussing phonotactic constraints, it is helpful to structure the syllable hierarchically in terms of an onset and a rhyme, and sometimes also the syllable coda. See the section on "Syllable Structure" for more details.
    We can then discuss phonotactic constraints:
    within the onset

    within the coda

    within the rhyme
    The most extreme phonotactic constraints (extreme in terms of the greatest restrictions in the sequential arrangement of phonemes) are in the onset. For example, in English: /f/ can only be followed by approximants (as in 'fly'), there are no consonant phonemes that can follow affricates etc.The phonotactic restrictions in the coda in English are often (but not always) a mirror-image of those in the onset (as you'd expect if the syllable's legal phoneme sequences are strongly influenced by the sonority profile). For example, English allows /pl/ in the onset ('play') and /lp/ in the coda ('help'); it allows /fr/ in the onset ('free') and, for rhotic dialects (e.g. Gen. American English), /rf/ in the coda ('surf'). But there are also many permissible coda sequences that are allowed whose mirror-image is disallowed in the onset (e.g. /mp/ as in 'lamp', but no /pm/ in the onset).
    Finally, there are far fewer restrictions in the rhyme -- these are to do with the restrictions on nucleus-coda combinations. But as an example of a rhyme constraint, there are no long vowel + /ŋ/ sequences (no words like 'seeng', 'flowng', although the onomatopoeic 'boing!' is allowed).
    Language-specific constraints
    Languages differ in the kinds of onsets they allow:
    /kn/
    /skw/
    /sb/
    /vr/
    English
    no
    yes
    no
    no
    German
    yes
    no
    no
    no
    French
    no
    no
    no
    yes
    Italian
    no
    no
    yes
    no
    In English the maximum number of consonants that can make up the syllabic onset at the beginning of an isolated word is three. The first can only be /s/, the second has to be /p, t, k/, and the third has to be an approximant /w, j, r, l/.
    eg.splayedstrayedscrape

    spewstewedskewed

    squishsquawksqueal
    These are all CCCVC When the third consonant is /w/ then the first two must be /sk/Whilst /spr/ and /str/ are permitted syllable-initially, /spw/ and /stw/ are not permitted syllable-initially in English.Most languages do not allow as many as three consonants in the syllabic onset however there are some that allow up to six.Restrictions in the coda are often the mirror image of those in the onset, eg pl ~ lp due to the sonority principle. However there are many exceptions eg /nd/ in "end" but not /dn/.
    The number of final consonants in an English rhyme can range from one to four. eg. /sɪk/ sick, /sɪks/ six, /siksθ/ sixth, /siksθs/ sixths
    Languages differ in the structures that they permit. English permits complex codas and onsets. Languages like Hawaiian, for instance, only allow a single consonant in the onset and none in the coda, so every syllable ends in a vowel. Standard Chinese allows only nasal consonants in the coda, so syllables are either open or closed with a nasal.
    Phonotactic constraints: Combinatory and Distributional
    Some Combinatory Constraints in English


    • /ŋ/ cannot be preceded by long vowels or diphthongs
    • /tʃ, dʒ, ð, z/ do not cluster
    • /r, w, l/ only occur alone or as non initial elements in clusters
    • /r, h, w, j/ do not occur in final position in Australian English, but /r/ can occur in final position in rhotic dialects such as American English.
    • In final position only /l/ can occur before non-syllabic /m/ and/n/.
    Some Distributional Constraints in English

    • /ŋ/ cannot occur word initially
    • /e, æ, ɐ, ʊ, ɔ/ cannot occur word finally
    • /ʊ/ cannot occur initially
    • /ʒ/ only occurs initially before /ɪ, iː, æ, ɔ/ in foreign words such as genre.

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    Re: Syllables Structure

    Post by Lily on Fri May 15, 2009 6:17 pm

    The syllable can be structured hierarchically into the following components:-
    In this example, the English word "plant" consists of a single CCVCC syllable. This syllable has been broken up into its onset (any consonants preceding the vowel) and its rhyme (all phonemes from the vowel to the end of the syllable).


    • The rhyme has been further divided into the nucleus, which in the vast majority of syllables is a vowel (the exceptions are syllabic consonants) and the coda, which are any consonants following the nucleus.
    Some other examples:
    flounce:onset = /fl/
    rhyme = /aʊns/
    nucleus = /aʊ/
    coda
    = /ns/
    free:onset /fr/
    rhyme = /iː/
    nucleus = /iː/
    coda
    zero
    each:onset zero
    rhyme = /iːt͡ʃ/
    nucleus = /iː/
    coda = /t͡ʃ/
    The Rhyme
    The rhyme is the vowel plus any following consonants.'plant'. Syllable is composed of an Onset = /pl/ and a Rhyme = /ænt/ (the rhyme is obligatory = the head of the syllable)There is phonological evidence of at least two kinds to suggest that the vowel forms a unit (the rhyme) with the following consonants

    • restrictions on phoneme combinations
    • sound change
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    Syllables Structure

    Post by Lily on Wed Mar 04, 2009 12:20 pm

    Every word is made from syllables.Each word has one, two, three or more syllables.

    WordNumber of syllables
    dogdog1
    greengreen1
    quitequite1
    quietqui-et2
    orangeor-ange2
    tableta-ble2
    expensiveex-pen-sive3
    interestingin-ter-est-ing4
    realisticre-al-is-tic4
    unexceptionalun-ex-cep-tion-al5
    Notice that (with a few rare exceptions) every syllable contains at least one vowel (a, e, i, o or u) or vowel sound.
    What is Word Stress?
    In English, we do not say each syllable with the same force or strength. In one word, we accentuate ONE syllable. We say one syllable very loudly (big, strong, important) and all the other syllables very quietly. Let's take 3 words: photograph, photographer and photographic. Do they sound the same when spoken? No. Because we accentuate (stress) ONE syllable in each word. And it is not always the same syllable. So the shape of each word is different.

    ShapeTotal SyllablesStressed Syllable
    PHO TO GRAPH 3#1
    PHO TO GRAPH ER 4#2
    PHO TO GRAPH IC 4#3
    This happens in ALL words with 2 or more syllables: TEACHer, JaPAN, CHINa, aBOVE, converSAtion, INteresting, imPORtant, deMAND, etCETera, etCETera, etCETera.The syllables that are not stressed are weak or small or quiet. Native speakers of English listen for the STRESSED syllables, not the weak syllables. If you use word stress in your speech, you will instantly and automatically improve your pronunciation and your comprehension.
    Try to hear the stress in individual words each time you listen to English - on the radio, or in films for example. Your first step is to HEAR and recognise it. After that, you can USE it!
    There are two very important rules about word stress:
    1.One word, one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. So if you hear two stresses, you have heard two words, not one word.)
    2.The stress is always on a vowel.
    Why is Word Stress Important?
    Word stress is not used in all languages. Some languages, Japanese or French for example, pronounce each syllable with eq-ual em-pha-sis.Other languages, English for example, use word stress.
    Word stress is not an optional extra that you can add to the English language if you want. It is part of the language! English speakers use word stress to communicate rapidly and accurately, even in difficult conditions. If, for example, you do not hear a word clearly, you can still understand the word because of the position of the stress.
    Think again about the two words photograph and photographer. Now imagine that you are speaking to somebody by telephone over a very bad line. You cannot hear clearly. In fact, you hear only the first two syllables of one of these words, photo... Which word is it, photograph or photographer? Of course, with word stress you will know immediately which word it is because in reality you will hear either PHOto... or phoTO... So without hearing the whole word, you probably know what the word is ( PHOto...graph or phoTO...grapher). It's magic! (Of course, you also have the 'context' of your conversation to help you.)
    This is a simple example of how word stress helps us understand English. There are many, many other examples, because we use word stress all the time, without thinking about it.
    Where do I Put Word Stress?
    There are some rules about which syllable to stress. But...the rules are rather complicated! Probably the best way to learn is from experience. Listen carefully to spoken English and try to develop a feeling for the "music" of the language.
    When you learn a new word, you should also learn its stress pattern. If you keep a vocabulary book, make a note to show which syllable is stressed. If you do not know, you can look in a dictionary. All dictionaries give the phonetic spelling of a word. This is where they show which syllable is stressed, usually with an apostrophe (') just before or just after the stressed syllable. (The notes at the front of the dictionary will explain the system used.) Look at (and listen to) this example for the word plastic. There are 2 syllables. Syllable #1 is stressed.

    Examplephonetic spelling: dictionary Aphonetic spelling: dictionary B
    PLAS TIC
    /plæs'tIk//'plæs tIk/
    Rules of Word Stress in English
    There are two very simple rules about word stress:
    One word has only one stress. (One word cannot have two stresses. If you hear two stresses, you hear two words. Two stresses cannot be one word. It is true that there can be a "secondary" stress in some words. But a secondary stress is much smaller than the main [primary] stress, and is only used in long words.)
    1.We can only stress vowels, not consonants.
    Here are some more, rather complicated, rules that can help you understand where to put the stress. But do not rely on them too much, because there are many exceptions. It is better to try to "feel" the music of the language and to add the stress naturally.
    1. Stress on first syllable

    RuleExample
    Most 2-syllable nounsPRESent, EXport, CHIna, TAble
    Most 2-syllable adjectivesPRESent, SLENder, CLEVer, HAPpy
    2.Stress on last syllable

    RuleExample
    Most 2-syllable verbsto preSENT, to exPORT, to deCIDE, to beGIN
    3. Stress on penultimate syllable (penultimate = second from end)

    RuleExample
    Words ending in -icGRAPHic, geoGRAPHic, geoLOGic
    Words ending in -sion and -tionteleVIsion, reveLAtion
    4. Stress on ante-penultimate syllable (ante-penultimate = third from end)

    RuleExample
    Words ending in -cy, -ty, -phy and -gydeMOcracy, dependaBIlity, phoTOgraphy, geOLogy
    Words ending in -alCRItical, geoLOGical
    5. Compound words (words with two parts)

    RuleExample
    For compund nouns, the stress is on the first partBLACKbird, GREENhouse
    For compound adjectives, the stress is on the second partbad-TEMpered, old-FASHioned
    For compound verbs, the stress is on the second partto underSTAND, to overFLOW

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    Re: Syllables Structure

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