Department of English

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A Guide For Creative Thinking

Thu Sep 17, 2009 3:12 am by BHSoft

A Guide For Creative Thinking by Brian Tracy
Einstein once said, “Every child is born a genius.” But the reason why most people do not function at genius levels is because they are not aware of how creative and smart they really are.I call it the “Schwarzenegger effect.” No one would look at a person such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and think how lucky he is to have been born with such …


Africain Literature

Wed Mar 04, 2009 8:15 pm by Lily

Things Fall Apart is a 1959 English-language novel by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. It is a staple book in schools throughout Africa and widely read and studied in English-speaking countries around the world. It is seen as the archetypal modern African novel in English, and one of the first African novels written in English to receive global critical acclaim. The title of the novel comes from [url=http://www.answers.com/topic/william-butler-yeats-3]


Algeria's Newspapers ...

Wed Mar 04, 2009 1:11 pm by Lily

study study study study



http://www.algeria press.com/
http://www.algeria press.com/alkhabar.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elwatan.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/echoroukonline.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elmoudjahid.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/liberte.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/horizons.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/el-massa.htm
[url=http://www.algeria-press.com/ech-chaab.htm]…


Algerian Vote

Thu Apr 09, 2009 12:39 pm by Lily

Algerians are voting in a presidential election which opposition groups have described as a charade.












American English

Fri Mar 13, 2009 4:00 pm by Maria

Going to is pronounced GONNA when it is used to show the future. But it is never reduced when it means going from one place to another.

We're going to grab a bite to eat. = We're gonna grab a bite to eat.
I'm going to the office tonight. = I'm going to the office tonight.

2. Want to and want a are both pronounced WANNA and wants to is pronounced WANSTA. Do you want to can also be reduced …

American Slangs

Sat Mar 21, 2009 8:54 pm by Maria

airhead: stupid person.
"Believe it or not, Dave can sometimes act like an airhead!"

amigo: friend (from Spanish).
"I met many amigos at Dave's ESL Cafe."

ammunition: toilet paper.
"Help! We're completely out of ammunition!"

antifreeze: alcohol.
"I'm going to need a lot of antifreeze tonight!"

armpit: dirty, unappealing place.


An Introduction to the British Civilization

Wed Nov 18, 2009 10:54 am by Maria

University of Batna First Year
English Department G: 6-7-8-9
General Culture

[center]An Introduction to the British Civilization

*The United Kingdom :

Full Name : The UK's full and official name is the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".

Location: The United Kingdom (UK) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country …

Announcements and News

Thu Mar 05, 2009 2:55 am by Lily


"Dear students , we would like to inform you that , from now on , your marks can be consulted through your Website ...Let's surf ! bounce bounce Wink

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

Sun Apr 12, 2009 11:32 pm by Lily

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

The process of applying for a research studentship begins with the identification of a potential supervisor. If you already know a staffmember who is willing to work with you to develop a research proposal,please start by contacting them. If you do not have a supervisor inmind already, …



    Better Writing

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    dahaka

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    Re: Better Writing

    Post by dahaka on Thu May 21, 2009 11:08 pm

    Okay[/b]
    Okay is a term of approval or assent, often written as OK, O.K., ok, okay, okee, okey, okie, okey day or more informally as simply kay, k or kk. Sometimes the reduplicated form okey dokey (or okey doke) is used, as well as A-ok. When used to describe the quality of a thing, it denotes acceptability. However, its usage can also be strongly approving; as with most slang, its usage is determined by context.
    The historical record shows that O.K. appeared as an abbreviation for "oll korrect" (a conscious misspelling of "all correct") in Boston newspapers in 1839, and was reinterpreted as "Old Kinderhook" in the 1840 United States presidential election. Because it is a recent word born of word play, and because it is so widely used, O.K. has also invited many folk etymologies. These competing theories are not supported by the historical written record, except in that folk and joke etymologies influenced the true history of the word. Since the 19th century, the word has spread around the world, the okay spelling of it first appearing in British writing in the 1860s. Spelled out in full in the 20th century, 'okay' has come to be in everyday use among English speakers, and borrowed by non-English speakers.
    Etymology: "Oll Korrect" and "Old Kinderhook"
    Allen Walker Read conclusively documented the early history of the abbreviation O.K., now also spelled okay, in a series of six articles in the journal American Speech in 1963 and 1964. He tracked the spread and evolution of the word in American newspapers and other written documents, and later its spread to the rest of the world. He also documented controversy surrounding O.K. and the history of its folk etymologies, both of which are intertwined with the history of the word itself.
    The first printed examples of O.K. can be found in the Boston newspapers of 1839 as part of a broader fad of forming and employing acronyms and initialisms, many of them barbarous. Other examples at the time included G.T.T. for "gone to Texas" and K.Y. for "know yuse". The general fad may have existed in spoken or informal written American English for a decade or more before its appearance in newspapers. O.K. was intended as a misspelling of "all correct"; in the first few years it was often published with this gloss. (Note that gloss indicates the spread of a new word.) The gloss was sometimes varied with degraded spelling such as "Oll Korrect" or even "Ole Kurreck". Deliberate word play was associated with the acronym fad and was a yet broader contemporary American fad. In this first phase, O.K. was spread with the acronym fad from Boston to other American cities.
    The first recorded appearance in the first phase was in the Boston Morning Post on March 23, 1839, in the following passage (presumably written by editor Charles Gordon Greene):
    The above is from the Providence Journal, the editor of which is a little too quick on the trigger, on this occasion. We said not a word about our deputation passing "through the city" of Providence.—We said our brethren were going to New York in the Richmond, and they did go, as per Post of Thursday. The "Chairman of the Committee on Charity Lecture Bells", is one of the deputation, and perhaps if he should return to Boston, via Providence, he of the Journal, and his train-band, would have his "contribution box," et ceteras, o.k.—all correct—and cause the corks to fly, like sparks, upward.
    In a second phase, O.K. was boosted by the 1840 presidential election, and thus marked to outlast the acronym fad from which it came. Democratic supporters of candidate Martin Van Buren equated "Oll Korrect" with "Old Kinderhook", which was a nickname for Van Buren, a native of Kinderhook, NY. In response, Whig opponents attributed O.K., in the sense of "Oll Korrect", to Andrew Jackson's bad spelling. Thus, the election popularized both O.K. and a folk etymology that the acronym came from Andrew Jackson.
    O.K. spread across the United States over the next two decades, and probably as far as Jamaica by 1848. The Civil War cemented its use, as much by confirming to American speakers that it was widely understood as by spreading it yet further. In the second half of the 19th century it spread to England and many other countries. In England it was first viewed as an improper Americanism, but it became widely accepted between the first and second World Wars.
    Folk etymologies
    The wordplay origin of O.K. invited folk etymology and joke etymology from the beginning. Eventually there appeared folk etymologies that were not connected with either word play or the 1840 Presidential election. In particular, in 1859, a Tennessee historian named Albigence Waldo Putnam misread an appearance of O.R. in a 1790 missive by Andrew Jackson as O.K.. This made Andrew Jackson the dominant theory of the origin of O.K. until it was disproven by Woodford Heflin in 1941 using photographic analysis.
    According to Read, an English professor at the University of Alabama named W. S. Wyman attributed OK to the Choctaw word "okeh", which means "it is so", in 1885. This theory was endorsed by President Woodrow Wilson. Unlike Read's own scholarship, this etymology lacks a clear historical record. Nonetheless, this theory remains popular among some students of Indian culture.
    It has been suggested that in World War II the term "zero killed" was used when a unit suffered no casualties in combat, and that this was then shortened to 0K. This proposed etymology is grossly anachronistic, since by this time the term had been widely used for a full century. The same theory has also been applied to the Civil War, but this is also anachronistic.
    Another story is that the expression came from a quality control system in some company, in which some inspector with the initials O.K. provided final approval. Some of the versions of this story include impossibly anachronistic choices for the company such as the Ford Motor Company, as well as implausible employee names such as "Omar Kulemsky". (In this example, Omar is Arabic, while Kulemsky is a possibly non-existent surname similar to several Eastern European surnames.)
    International folk etymologies
    There are also many proposed international etymologies of O.K., but they lack supporting written evidence just as the American folk etymologies do.
    In Greek, O.K. is a correctly-spelled abbreviation for the expression, Ola Kala (Ὅλα Καλά, ΟΚ), which has the same meaning as the American English "okay". It is possible that Greek sailors used Ola Kala in American ports.
    "Waw-kay" is an exclamation in both Bantu and Wolof dialects: "waw" means yes, and "kay" is an emphatic, so "waw-kay" is an emphatic yes. There is a record of a traveller from England who encountered such usage from a slave in Virginia in the 18th century[8]:
    Kay, massa, you just leave me, me sit here, great fish jump up into da canoe, here he be, massa, fine fish, massa; me den very grad; den me sit very still, until another great fish jump into de canoe;...
    Although this usage of "kay" significantly predates the initialism fad in Boston, there is no record that connects this particular Bantu word to the use O.K. among non-slave English speakers. However, some other English words such as jive (jev) and banana have uncontested Bantu or Wolof origins.
    The word of assent in Occitan is òc (from Latin hoc), as opposed to oïl (< Lat. "hoc ille), the ancestor of the modern French oui, from the langue d'oïl of Northern France. However, before the word "okay" appeared in American English, the final consonant in Occitan òc tended to become silent, leading to the two possible pronunciations: [ɔ / ɔk]. In any case, it is very unlikely that this Occitan word is the origin of okay.
    French fishermen, including those based in New Orleans, might sometimes have used the phrase "au quai", literally "to the quay", to mean that a fishing trip was successful (or went okay) and therefore there were fish to unload at the quay. This itself may have been derived from references to the Haitian seaport of Les Cayes (previously known as 'Aux Cayes').
    The term OK is also used by typesetters and people working in publishing. A manuscript that did not need any changes or corrections would be marked O.K. for Ohne Korrektur (German for 'without correction'). Other stories are that it comes from the British English word hoacky (the last load of the harvest), the Finnish word oikein ('that's right' or 'correct'), or the Scottish expression och aye (oh yes).
    Yet another unsupported speculation is that the word derives from Spanish. English speakers may have directly translated the phrase 'or what' into Spanish, and the Spanish speakers have regarded it as an English dialectal feature. Or Spanish speakers may have used the phrase '¿o qué?' (or what?) in the end of many English sentences, letting English speakers interpret it as a dialectal 'right' and thus replied with an affirmative 'o qué'.
    Another completely unsupported bit of speculation is the theory that there is a tie in to Finnish immigrants to the US. The Finnish "oikea" tranlates to accurate, arrant, authentic, correct, due, exact, genuine, germain, just, positive, proper, pure, real, right (meaning also the direction), sound, true, veritable, regular, as in "Se on oikein" (It is correct or OK)
    In Sesotho, the national language of Lesotho, the phrase "ho lokile," (pronounced "ho low-key-lay") means literally "that/this/it is good." This is an unlikely source for the English okay, but English-speaking students of Sesotho experience an eerie moment when introduced to this very common phrase. (Similarly, the phrase "e-a ntatae" means "yes, sir" - literally, "yes, father." It is pronounced very much like "A-on Daddy"!)
    Grammatical functions
    In English okay may be used as a verb, noun, adjective, adverb, and interjection. When used as a noun, the word signifies someone's approval, such as, "Make sure you get the teacher's okay on that topic." The verb has a similar function, such as, "I okay that topic." As an interjection it can take the place of "all right" or similar words or phrases.
    Spelling style
    Whether this word is printed as OK, okay, or O.K. is a matter normally resolved in the style manual for the publication involved. Common style guides: Chicago, New York Times, etc., provide no consensus nor do dictionaries. The Associated Press Stylebook recommends the spellings "OK, OKd OKing, OKs" and states "do not use [the spelling] okay."
    More recently, text messagers (email, chat rooms, instant messaging, mobile phone messaging (Short message service), etc.) use k or even kk, as a quickly-typed, informal variation of the spelling, though some claim this variation has been in use since at least the BBS days of the early 1980s.
    Usage
    From the Oxford English Dictionary:
    Okay (also OK) / adj, adv (informal) all right; satisfactory or satisfactorily
    Eg. I hope the children are okay. (I hope the children are all right.)
    I think I did OK in the exam. (I think I did well, but not too well, on the exam.)
    He is OK. ( He is good )
    Depending on context and inflection, Okay can also imply mediocrity. For example: "The concert was just okay."
    Okay is sometimes used merely to acknowledge a question without giving an affirmation. For example: "You're going to give the money back that you stole, right?" "Okay."
    Saying Okay in a sarcastic tone or questioning tone can indicate that the person one is talking to is considered crazy and/or exacerbatingly stubborn in their view.
    Okay! can also be used as an exclamation in place of words like "enough!" or "stop!"
    International Usage
    Okay is a very widespread term. English speakers everywhere use and understand it.
    In Europe the word is widespread and well-recognized.
    In Mexico the word is pronounced just as it is in English, and is used very frequently. In Brazil, it is used with its original pronunciation and local translation of O (ó) and K (ká), which sounds something like "okah".
    It is used in Japan and Korea in a somewhat restricted sense, fairly equivalent to "all right". In China the term "好了" (hao le), whose meaning closely resembles that of OK, is commonly transformed into "OK了" (OK le) when communicating with foreigners. The "了" indicates a change of state, ie. "OK了" indicates the achievement of consensus. In Taiwan, it is frequently used in various sentences, popular among but not limited to younger generations. This includes the forementioned "OK了" (OK le), "OK嗎" (OK ma), meaning "Is it OK?" or "OK啦" (OK la), a strong, persuading affirmative.
    [/i] Exclamation
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    Writing Reports

    Post by Lily on Thu Apr 23, 2009 6:50 pm

    Writing Reports and Accompanying Rubrics

    The following are guidelines for writing reports.
    For each topic, there are instructions for writing the report and, for most, an accompanying rubric designed to help the student check the work, and for the teacher's final assessment of the report.
    Science Research Report Topics:
    Animal Research Report:
    How to write a paper about an animal; describe its anatomy, diet,habitat, range, life cycle, enemies, and other interesting facts about the animal. Or go to the grading rubric alone.
    Dinosaur (or other Extinct animal) Research Report:
    How to write a paper about a dinosaur; write about its anatomy, where it lived, when it lived, when it went extinct, and other interesting facts about the dinosaur and the period in which it lived.
    Planet Research Report:
    How to write a paper about a planet, describing its orbit, atmosphere,internal structure, mass, gravitational pull at the surface, moons (if there are any), and any special attributes (like rings, an extremely-tilted axis, an odd rotation, or spots).Or go to the grading rubric.
    Historical Research Reports:
    Invention Research Report:
    How to write a paper about an invention, describing the function of the invention, when it was invented, who invented it, and how the invention changed people's lives. Or go to the grading rubric.
    Explorer Research Report:
    Write a paper about a famous explorer, describing the area(s) that the person explored, when the expedition(s) traveled, highlights of the trip(s), why they chose the routes they did, and the results of the exploration. Or go to the grading rubric.
    Presidential Biography Report:
    How to write a paper about a US President, writing about the President's early life, the presidency, and the post-presidency. Or go to the grading rubric.
    Book Reports and Movie Reviews:
    Book Report with Rubric:
    How to write a book report, noting the name of the book, the author,the major characters, the setting of the book, and a short summary of the book.

    Book Report:
    Write a simple book report, noting the name of the book, the author,the major characters, the setting of the book, and a short summary of the book.
    Movie Review: Write a simple movie review, describing the characters, the story, and what you like the most and the least about the movie.

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    That /Which

    Post by Lily on Fri Mar 13, 2009 6:45 pm

    That vs Which
    Rule 1

    Who refers to people. That and which refer to groups or things.
    Examples:
    Anya is the one who rescued the bird.
    Lokua is on the team that won first place.
    She belongs to an organization that specializes in saving endangered species.
    Rule 2.

    That introduces essential clauses while which introduces nonessential clauses.
    Examples:I do not trust editorials that claim racial differences in intelligence.
    We would not know which editorials were being discussed without the that clause.

    The editorial claiming racial differences in intelligence, which appeared in the Sunday newspaper, upset
    me.
    The editorial is already identified. Therefore, which begins a nonessential
    clause.

    NOTE:
    Essential clauses do not have commas surrounding them while nonessential clauses are surrounded by commas.

    Rule 3.

    If this, that, these, or those has already introduced an essential clause, you may use which to introduce the next clause,whether it is essential or nonessential.

    Examples:

    That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.
    Those ideas, which we've discussed thoroughly enough, do not need to be addressed again.

    NOTE:
    Often, you can streamline your sentence by leaving out which.

    Examples:

    Those ideas, which we have discussed thoroughly, do not need to be addressed again.
    Better: The ideas we have discussed thoroughly do not need to be addressed
    again.

    That is a decision which you must live with for the rest of your life.

    Better: That is a decision you must live with for the rest of your life.

    OR

    You must live with that decision for the rest of your life.
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    Better Writing

    Post by Lily on Thu Mar 05, 2009 10:16 pm

    May / Might
    May:We can use 'may' to ask for permission. However this is rather formal and not used very often in modern spoken English

    • May I borrow your pen?
    • May we think about it?
    • May I go now?
    We use 'may' to suggest something is possible

    • It may rain later today.
    • I may not have time to do it today.
    • Pete may come with us
    MightWe use 'might' to suggest a small possibility of something. Often we read that 'might' suggests a smaller possibility that 'may', there is in fact little difference and might is more usual than 'may' in spoken English.

    • She might be at home by now but it's not sure at all.
    • It might rain this afternoon.
    • I might not have time to go to the shops for you.
    • I might not go.
    For the past, we use 'might have'.

    • He might have tried to call while I was out.
    • I might have dropped it in the street.



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    Re: Better Writing

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