Department of English

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A Guide For Creative Thinking

Thu Sep 17, 2009 3:12 am by BHSoft

A Guide For Creative Thinking by Brian Tracy
Einstein once said, “Every child is born a genius.” But the reason why most people do not function at genius levels is because they are not aware of how creative and smart they really are.I call it the “Schwarzenegger effect.” No one would look at a person such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and think how lucky he is to have been born with such …


Africain Literature

Wed Mar 04, 2009 8:15 pm by Lily

Things Fall Apart is a 1959 English-language novel by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. It is a staple book in schools throughout Africa and widely read and studied in English-speaking countries around the world. It is seen as the archetypal modern African novel in English, and one of the first African novels written in English to receive global critical acclaim. The title of the novel comes from [url=http://www.answers.com/topic/william-butler-yeats-3]


Algeria's Newspapers ...

Wed Mar 04, 2009 1:11 pm by Lily

study study study study



http://www.algeria press.com/
http://www.algeria press.com/alkhabar.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elwatan.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/echoroukonline.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elmoudjahid.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/liberte.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/horizons.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/el-massa.htm
[url=http://www.algeria-press.com/ech-chaab.htm]…


Algerian Vote

Thu Apr 09, 2009 12:39 pm by Lily

Algerians are voting in a presidential election which opposition groups have described as a charade.












American English

Fri Mar 13, 2009 4:00 pm by Maria

Going to is pronounced GONNA when it is used to show the future. But it is never reduced when it means going from one place to another.

We're going to grab a bite to eat. = We're gonna grab a bite to eat.
I'm going to the office tonight. = I'm going to the office tonight.

2. Want to and want a are both pronounced WANNA and wants to is pronounced WANSTA. Do you want to can also be reduced …

American Slangs

Sat Mar 21, 2009 8:54 pm by Maria

airhead: stupid person.
"Believe it or not, Dave can sometimes act like an airhead!"

amigo: friend (from Spanish).
"I met many amigos at Dave's ESL Cafe."

ammunition: toilet paper.
"Help! We're completely out of ammunition!"

antifreeze: alcohol.
"I'm going to need a lot of antifreeze tonight!"

armpit: dirty, unappealing place.


An Introduction to the British Civilization

Wed Nov 18, 2009 10:54 am by Maria

University of Batna First Year
English Department G: 6-7-8-9
General Culture

[center]An Introduction to the British Civilization

*The United Kingdom :

Full Name : The UK's full and official name is the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".

Location: The United Kingdom (UK) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country …

Announcements and News

Thu Mar 05, 2009 2:55 am by Lily


"Dear students , we would like to inform you that , from now on , your marks can be consulted through your Website ...Let's surf ! bounce bounce Wink

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

Sun Apr 12, 2009 11:32 pm by Lily

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

The process of applying for a research studentship begins with the identification of a potential supervisor. If you already know a staffmember who is willing to work with you to develop a research proposal,please start by contacting them. If you do not have a supervisor inmind already, …



    Word Definitions

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    Re: Word Definitions

    Post by Lily on Thu Apr 30, 2009 11:20 pm

    Definition of Philanthropy
    The yourDictionary Web site defines philanthropy as “a desire to help mankind, esp. as shown by gifts to charitable or humanitarian institutions; benevolence.” Philanthropy may be motivated by religious beliefs, a sense of civic duty, or simple compassion for those in need.Without the work of philanthropists, many of the things we take for granted would not exist. Philanthropy is a substantial source of funding for groups devoted to humanitarian,artistic, musical, or religious causes. These causes, although they priority when the government distributes public funds.
    In the business community, philanthropy is often viewed as an important way for successful individuals to give back to those who indirectly helped them amass their fortunes. For example, Bill Gates, cofounder of Microsoft, is rapidly becoming known throughout the world for his commitment to philanthropy. The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation gave $1,158,280,084 to various causes in 2002 alone, supporting efforts to enhance global health and improve the quality of education for children around the world. In 2006, noted investor Warren Buffett stunned the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. Buffett stated that he felt the Gateses' own philanthropy was a close match to his personal priorities and he hoped his gift would make it easier for them to accomplish their goals.
    Of course, philanthropy isn’t limited to the rich and famous. There are many ways you can help others even if you’re operating on a tight budget yourself. Donating canned goods to a food bank to help needy families in your community is a simple philanthropic act with direct benefits. The Toys for Tots fundraiser, an effort to of a philanthropic cause that is supported by everyday Americans.
    If you’re interested in learning more about philanthropy, yourDictionary recommends the following helpful resources:

    • Philanthropy Resources from Business Week
    • Philanthropy Careers
    • Philanthropy Roundtable
    • On Philanthropy
    • The Center for Effective Philanthropy
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    Word Definitions:Fairy Tales

    Post by Lily on Mon Apr 20, 2009 9:54 pm

    Define Fairy Tales
    Everyone knows that a fairy tale is a story intended for children, often involving some fanciful creature or extraordinary adventure. Contemporary fairy tales often have a moral or ethical undercurrent to the story, a "lesson" to be learned. A technical definition of fairy tales from yourDictionary.com says that they are a "fanciful tale of legendary deeds and creatures, usually intended for children."
    Although intoday's modern society, fairy tales often are told to children andmight include a moralistic stance or warning against dangers, theybegan as chiefly oral stories passed from generation to generation .Adults often original stories that may have been gruesome or includesexual references. For example, Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm (also known asThe Brothers Grimm) wrote down German fairy tales in their originaladult versions in the 1800s, only to later revise them to be moreacceptable for children. Read 12 tales in a translated 1914 originalversion at on the National Geographic website,.Fairytales are found in almost every culture and region of the world. Forexample, Japan, Russia, Sweden, Great Britain, and Germany have theirown tales. Although the tones and plot may vary, they include the sameuniversal elements that are described in the definition from yourDictionary.
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    Definition of Stress

    Post by Lily on Mon Apr 06, 2009 7:31 pm

    The YourDictionary Web site defines stress as “a condition typically characterized by symptoms of mental and physical tension or strain, as depression or hypertension, which can result from a reaction to a situation in which a person feels threatened, pressured, etc.” Synonyms for stress include anxiety,nervousness, fearfulness, apprehensiveness, impatience, fear tenseness, or restlessness.Regardless of how you define stress, almost every person understands how it feels. In today’s fast-paced society, stress is surprisingly common. Unfortunately, stress is not the “badge of honor”some people like to portray it as. If left unchecked, stress can lead to anger, hostility, and a decreased overall enjoyment of life.
    Stress has many different causes, some of which affect certain people morethan others. Work is often cited as a primary cause of stress,especially among those who believe they are underpaid andunderappreciated in their professional lives. Strained familyrelationships with spouses and children can also lead to stress.
    However, even seemingly insignificant problems such as long lines at the grocery store or rush hour traffic jams can increase stress levels in some people.
    While removing oneself from stressful situations is ideal, this is not always the most practical solution to managing stress. Meditation, yoga, and other forms of relaxation therapy can be helpful in coping with stress. Changes that improve your overall health, such as eating a balanced diet and ensuring a good night’s sleep, can also help to boost your resistance to the negative effects of stress.
    Post-traumatic stress disorder is a stress-related illness, but it should not be confused with the effectsof everyday stress. This serious mental health condition is typicallytriggered by events such as rape, physical abuse, serving in a militarycombat zone, or surviving a life-threatening accident. Suffererstypically require counseling and/or prescription medications.
    To learn more about stress and its effects on the body, YourDictionary recommends visiting the following helpful Web sites:

    • Mayo Clinic Stress Center
    • MedLine Plus Stress Resources
    • Stress Help Guide
    • Resources from the American Psychological Association
    • Kids Health Childhood Stress
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    Lily
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    Definition of Vote of No Confidence

    Post by Lily on Fri Apr 03, 2009 2:29 pm

    YourDictionary defines a vote of no confidence as a motion put before parliament to defeat or embarrass an opposing party. Typically, the term appears in reference to politics, especially British and American politics.
    A vote of no confidence is also called a motion of no confidence,a censure motion, a no confidence motion, or a confidence motion.According to Westminster parliamentary procedure, governments often respond to a vote of no confidence by calling for a confidence motion.Parliament passes or rejects the vote. Typically, when a vote of no confidence passes parliament, the government official must either resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution or general election.While the vote of no confidence is rarer these days, in recent times, several political leaders have come under fire and a vote of no confidence has been called for by the opposing party. Many parliamentary and presidential political systems include the vote of no confidence in the political playbook.
    Many people mistakenly associate a vote of no confidence with the term impeachment. The two words mean different things. Impeachment implies that a crime has been committed by a government official.Impeachment is a rare political process. Other political leaders in America, from the Attorney General to the local sheriff, may receive a vote of no confidence. A vote of no confidence doesn’t imply that the person under vote has committed a crime, however.
    Usage Examples

    • The prime minister’s incompetence spurred an angry parliament to call for a vote of no confidence.
    • The senator requested a vote of no confidence in the Attorney General after the botched FBI raid.
    Examples of Vote of No Confidence

    • The first record of a vote of no confidence occurred in the United Kingdom in 1782 immediately after the British defeat in the American colonies at Yorktown. Then Prime Minister Lord North presented his resignation to King George III. In modern times, parties typically handle disputes among themselves and votes of no confidence are rare.
    • In presidential systems such as the United States, votes of no confidence can occur. One example of a vote of no confidence in the United States occurred in the 1950s when U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson received a vote of no confidence. Very recently, Attorney General Alberto Gonzalez also received a vote of no confidence.
    • Unlike the British system, in Germany the Chancellor is not required to resign if he or she receives a vote of no confidence.
    • In modern times, votes of no confidence are relatively rare occurrences in democracies. Parties typically handle tiffs among their members without resorting to the vote of no confidence.
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    Propaganda

    Post by Lily on Thu Apr 02, 2009 12:10 pm

    The YourDictionary Web site defines propaganda as “any systematic,widespread dissemination or promotion of particular ideas, doctrines, practices, etc. to further one's own cause or todamage an opposing one.” While it is true that many of the techniquesassociated with propaganda are also used in the practice of advertisingor public relations, the term propaganda is usually applied to effortsto promote a particular political viewpoint. Additionally, propagandacan be used to promote specific religious views, making it similar to evangelism or proselytism.
    The word propaganda comes from the Latin name Congregatio de Propaganda Fide ("Congregation for the Spreading of the Faith"). This department, founded by Pope Gregory XV in 1622, was devoted to the spread of Catholicism after the start of the Thirty Years' War. The term itself does not specifically refer to any negative practice,although propaganda certainly has negative connotations in today’s society.
    Propaganda messages can be delivered as part ofthe mainstream news media, including through music, magazines, movies,and television shows. Propaganda may also take the form of reports,publications, and leaflets targeted to a particular segment of thepopulation. It is common for propaganda to be aimed at children andyoung adults, because they lack the critical reasoning skills andcontextual comprehension abilities to help determine the objectivity ofa particular message. Techniques used in propaganda can include appealsto fear, statements of prejudice, black and white fallacies,disinformation, demonizing the enemy, flag waving, intentionalvagueness, oversimplification, and scapegoating.Typically,the most effective propaganda campaigns are based upon the truth.However, propaganda presents the facts selectively in order toencourage people to come to a particular conclusion. Propaganda oftendelivers loaded messages designed to produce an emotional rather thanrational response to the information that is being presented.
    To learn more about the use of propaganda throughout history, yourDictionary recommends visiting the following Web sites:

    • Propaganda History
    • Nazi Propaganda
    • Music as Propaganda in World War I
    • Propaganda and the Cold War
    • Propaganda Techniques in Literature and Online Political Ads
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    Definition of Stress

    Post by Lily on Sat Mar 21, 2009 11:45 pm

    The Your Dictionary Web site defines stress as “a condition typically characterized by symptoms of mental andphysical tension or strain, as depression or hypertension, which canresult from a reaction to a situation in which a person feelsthreatened, pressured, etc.” Synonyms for stress include anxiety,nervousness, fearfulness, apprehensiveness, impatience, fear,tenseness, or restlessness.Regardless of how you define stress, almost every person understands how it feels. In today’s fast-paced society, stress is surprisingly common. Unfortunately, stress is not the “badge of honor” some people like to portray it as. If left unchecked, stress can lead to anger, hostility, and a decreased overall enjoyment of life.
    Stress has many different causes, some of which affect certain people more than others. Work is often cited as a primary cause of stress,especially among those who believe they are underpaid and underappreciated in their professional lives. Strained family relationships with spouses and children can also lead to stress.However, even seemingly insignificant problems such as long lines at the grocery store or rush hour traffic jams can increase stress levels in some people.While removing oneself from stressful situations is ideal, this is not always the most practical solution to managing stress. Meditation, yoga, and other forms of relaxation therapy can be helpful in coping with stress. Changes that improve your overall health, such as eating a balanced diet and ensuring a good night’s sleep, can also help to boost your resistance to the negative effects of stress.
    Post-traumatic stress disorder is a stress-related illness, but it should not be confused with the effects of everyday stress. This serious mental health condition is typically triggered by events such as rape, physical abuse, serving in a military combat zone, or surviving a life-threatening accident. Sufferers typically require counseling and/or prescription medications.
    To learn more about stress and its effects on the body, YourDictionary recommends visiting the following helpful Web sites:

    • Mayo Clinic Stress Center
    • MedLine Plus Stress Resources
    • Stress Help Guide
    • Resources from the American Psychological Association
    • Kids Health Childhood Stress
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    Definition of Economic Depression

    Post by Lily on Sat Mar 21, 2009 11:32 pm

    The your Dictionary Web site defines an economic depression as aprolonged period of recession, or a significant and prolonged downturn in the economy. Characteristics of an economic depression include declining business activities, falling prices, rising unemployment,increasing inventories, public fear and panic. Economists differ in their opinion of what exactly constitutes recession and depression. Many define recession as two or more quarters of reduced Gross Domestic Product (GDP). GDP measures national income and output for a country’s economy. Per capita GDP is often used to measure the standard of living, with the thought being that as GDP rises, so too does each citizen’s standard of living. Hence, measuring GDP provides clues as to the overall health of the economy and a glimpse into the health of an individual’s wallet.
    When the economy moves into a recession, the country’s economy enters a period of negative growth. Real income declines, unemployment rises, and industrial production wavers. If a recession continues for a long time, the economy moves into an economic depression.Waves of economic growth and contraction constitute the normal ebb and flow of free market capitalism. Throughout its history, the United States economy has undergone periods of boom and bust, with short and sharp economic downturns followed by growth that is considered normal.However, in the late 1920s, an event happened that changed the world. From 1929 to the early 1940s, the United States and many industrialized countries worldwide experienced a prolonged and deep economic downturn. The Great Depression forced millions into unemployment, homelessness, and near-starvation.
    At its worst point, unemployment in America soared to 25%. A decade of easy credit created a false sense of prosperity, while farmers struggled under heavy debt and declining farm goods prices. The ensuing market correction in 1929 evaporated the fortunes of many, with the entire population suffering as consumer demand dropped, jobs disappeared, and factories shuttered against declining orders.
    Government intervention, in the form of public policy changes and job creation, improved conditions. The onset of World War II and rising demand for manufactured goods to support the war effort officially ended the Great Depression.Is the United States entering another period of economic depression?Some economists point to the housing market bubble burst of 2007 as the start of a prolonged and severe downturn. The sub prime mortgage debacle, coupled with more and more factories turning overseas for cheap labor, has many worried that the United States is entering a dark economic period. Others, however, see the current economic downturn as merely a typical correction in the free market economy. Only time will tell whether this is a bump in the economic road or a major detour.

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    Definition of Plagiarism

    Post by Lily on Sat Mar 21, 2009 11:18 pm

    Whether you’re a student preparing a research paper or a professional writer in search of a new career opportunity, it’s important to be aware of the definition of plagiarism. According to YourDictionary, plagiarism is defined as “copying or stealing someone else’s words or ideas and claiming or presenting them as if they were your own.” However, within this definition there are many different types of plagiarism.Obviously, buying a term paper or essay written by someone else and attempting to use it as your own is considered plagiarism. Directly copying sentences, paragraphs, or pages of another writer’s work without crediting your source is also a concrete example of plagiarism. However, many people are unaware that plagiarism can include lesser crimes such as paraphrasing materials without correctly attributing the source text. Self-plagiarism is an issue when writers try to use similar language in more than one published work.Penalties for plagiarism can be quite severe. Most colleges and universities have academic integrity policies that allow for a plagiarizing student to either fail the course or be expelled. For professional writers,plagiarism can mean the end of a career. Young novelist Kaavya Viswanathan found this out the hard way when sections of her debut novel How Opal Mehta Got Kissed, Got Wild and Got a Life were found to have borrowed language from similar works by other chick-lit writers.Her book was recalled and Little Brown cancelled plans to publish a sequel.Those interested in avoiding plagiarism are advised to cite sources and references whenever possible, unless the facts in question are assumed to be common knowledge. For example, you would not need to provide attribution for a statement saying you must consume fewer calories than you expend each day to lose weight. However, you would need to cite your source if you are claiming that eating nothing but carrots is the best way to drop unwanted pounds.To learn more about the definition of plagiarism and how to avoid problems in your own writing, yourDictionary recommends visiting the following helpful resources:

    • Plagiarism Defined
    • Citing Sources and Avoiding Plagiarism
    • Avoiding Plagiarism
    • List of Ethical Writing Guidelines
    • Plagiarism Stoppers: A Teacher’s Guide
    • Famous Plagiarists
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    Definition of http

    Post by Lily on Sat Mar 21, 2009 12:07 pm

    Your Dictionary defines http as an acronym for hypertext transfer protocol. This protocol was designed to provide a standard that could be used to publish and share hypertext pages between computers.Typically, when a user is viewing a page on the Internet, strings of text or images function as links. When a link is clicked on by the user's computer mouse, the user will be taken to another hypertext page. This intertwined type of communication provides the background for the Internet. The Internet can be thought of as nothing more than an interconnected collective of hypertext pages.
    Although the computer programming origins of the acronym http are very arcane and technical, this term has become increasinglycommonplace due to the overwhelming influence of the World Wide Web.
    The command http:// precedes most every public Internet address in the world. To understand how this works, consider what occurs when a user types the Internet address http://www.yourdictionary.com into his or her Web browser. The command http:// is used to tell the Web server where www.yourdictionary.com is hosted that the user is requesting a hypertext page from that server. The server finds the appropriate hypertext file and sends it back to the user using hyper text transfer protocol where it is then displayed in their browser.
    It's important to understand that a server is just a computer on the Internet where files are stored. However, many different types of filescan be stored on the same server and that different protocols can beused to transmit those files. For example, another common transportprotocol is ftp, which stands for file transfer protocol. Ftp wasinitially designed to transfer large files across the Internet.
    On the same server where the hyper text file for YourDictionary.com is stored, another file called ftp://www.yourdictionary.com could bestored. In this instance, when a user makes this type of request, theftp:// at the beginning of the address tells the server to send thecorrect page back to the user using file transfer protocol and nothyper text transfer protocol. To the user, data is being sent back andforth, but the speed the data travels at and how it is routed throughthe tunnels and gateways of the Internet is governed by the type of protocols that carry the data.

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    Vote of No Confidence

    Post by Lily on Sat Mar 21, 2009 11:55 am

    Your Dictionary defines a vote of no confidence as a motion put before parliament to defeat or embarrass an opposing party. Typically, the term appears in reference to politics, especially British and American politics.
    A vote of no confidence is also called a motion of no confidence, a censure motion, a no confidence motion, or a confidence motion.According to Westminster parliamentary procedure, governments often respond to a vote of no confidence by calling for a confidence motion.Parliament passes or rejects the vote. Typically, when a vote of no confidence passes parliament, the government official must either resign or seek a parliamentary dissolution or general election.While the vote of no confidence is rarer these days, in recent times, several political leaders have come under fire and a vote of no confidence has been called for by the opposing party. Many parliamentary and presidential political systems include the vote of no confidence in the political playbook.
    Many people mistakenly associate a vote of no confidence with the term impeachment. The two words mean different things. Impeachment implies that a crime has been committed by a government official. Impeachment is a rare political process. Other political leaders in America, from the Attorney General to the local sheriff, may receive a vote of no confidence. A vote of no confidence doesn’t imply that the person under vote has committed a crime, however.
    Usage Examples

    • The prime minister’s incompetence spurred an angry parliament to call for a vote of no confidence.
    • The senator requested a vote of no confidence in the Attorney General after the botched FBI raid.
    Examples of Vote of No Confidence


    • The first record of a vote of no confidence occurred in the United Kingdom in 1782 immediately after the British defeat in the American colonies at Yorktown. Then Prime Minister Lord North presented his resignation to King George III. In modern times, parties typically handle disputes among themselves and votes of no confidence are rare.
    • In presidential systems such as the United States, votes of no confidence can occur. One example of a vote of no confidence in the United States occurred in the 1950s when U.S. Secretary of State Dean Acheson received a vote of no confidence. Very recently, Attorney General Alberto Gonzalez also received a vote of no confidence.
    • Unlike the British system, in Germany the Chancellor is not required to resign if he or she receives a vote of no confidence.
    • In modern times, votes of no confidence are relatively rare occurrences in democracies. Parties typically handle tiffs among their members without resorting to the vote of no confidence.
    avatar
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    Word Definitions

    Post by Lily on Sat Mar 21, 2009 11:43 am

    Critical Thinking
    The term critical thinking refers to the thought processes used to evaluate information and the practice of using such conclusions to guide behavior. The process of critical thinking is associated with accuracy, logic, depth, fairness, credibility, and intellectual clarity. The word “critical” is not used to imply negativity or pessimism, however. Critical thinking merely means that one must not automatically accept the validity of the information he or she is given.
    Regardless of age, gender, or ethnicity, someone who has strong critical thinking skills has a sense of curiosity and is interested in finding innovative solutions to problems. He or she is willing to examine previously held beliefs, opinions, or assumptions and objectively weigh them against facts—admitting when a lack of understanding or information impairs the decision making process and adjusting conclusions as needed to accommodate the introduction of new information. In this way, a person with strong critical thinking skills can be described as self-directed, self-monitored, and self-disciplined.
    Teaching critical thinking skills is an important goal of the modern educationalsystem. While teachers were once content to have students simplymemorize facts, figures, and dates, they now aspire to teach studentshow to analyze situations and suspend judgment until all available datahas been gathered and considered. For example, students in historyclasses now spend a great deal of time discussing issues such as howpropaganda was used to influence the public’s perception of events likethe Holocaust. It is believed that this approach will make studentsmore competitive in the workplace, since the ability to make logicaldecisions based on an analysis of all available data is an importantpart of success in the corporate environment.
    If you are interested in learning more about how to develop your critical thinking skills, yourDictionary recommends visiting the following helpful resources:

    • Defining Critical Thinking
    • An Introduction to Critical Thinking
    • Coaching Winners: How to Teach Critical Thinking
    • Critical Thinking on the Web

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    Re: Word Definitions

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