Department of English

Welcome to The Department of English at BATNA University

July 2018

MonTueWedThuFriSatSun
      1
2345678
9101112131415
16171819202122
23242526272829
3031     

Calendar Calendar

A Guide For Creative Thinking

Thu Sep 17, 2009 3:12 am by BHSoft

A Guide For Creative Thinking by Brian Tracy
Einstein once said, “Every child is born a genius.” But the reason why most people do not function at genius levels is because they are not aware of how creative and smart they really are.I call it the “Schwarzenegger effect.” No one would look at a person such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and think how lucky he is to have been born with such …


Africain Literature

Wed Mar 04, 2009 8:15 pm by Lily

Things Fall Apart is a 1959 English-language novel by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. It is a staple book in schools throughout Africa and widely read and studied in English-speaking countries around the world. It is seen as the archetypal modern African novel in English, and one of the first African novels written in English to receive global critical acclaim. The title of the novel comes from [url=http://www.answers.com/topic/william-butler-yeats-3]


Algeria's Newspapers ...

Wed Mar 04, 2009 1:11 pm by Lily

study study study study



http://www.algeria press.com/
http://www.algeria press.com/alkhabar.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elwatan.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/echoroukonline.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elmoudjahid.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/liberte.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/horizons.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/el-massa.htm
[url=http://www.algeria-press.com/ech-chaab.htm]…


Algerian Vote

Thu Apr 09, 2009 12:39 pm by Lily

Algerians are voting in a presidential election which opposition groups have described as a charade.












American English

Fri Mar 13, 2009 4:00 pm by Maria

Going to is pronounced GONNA when it is used to show the future. But it is never reduced when it means going from one place to another.

We're going to grab a bite to eat. = We're gonna grab a bite to eat.
I'm going to the office tonight. = I'm going to the office tonight.

2. Want to and want a are both pronounced WANNA and wants to is pronounced WANSTA. Do you want to can also be reduced …

American Slangs

Sat Mar 21, 2009 8:54 pm by Maria

airhead: stupid person.
"Believe it or not, Dave can sometimes act like an airhead!"

amigo: friend (from Spanish).
"I met many amigos at Dave's ESL Cafe."

ammunition: toilet paper.
"Help! We're completely out of ammunition!"

antifreeze: alcohol.
"I'm going to need a lot of antifreeze tonight!"

armpit: dirty, unappealing place.


An Introduction to the British Civilization

Wed Nov 18, 2009 10:54 am by Maria

University of Batna First Year
English Department G: 6-7-8-9
General Culture

[center]An Introduction to the British Civilization

*The United Kingdom :

Full Name : The UK's full and official name is the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".

Location: The United Kingdom (UK) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country …

Announcements and News

Thu Mar 05, 2009 2:55 am by Lily


"Dear students , we would like to inform you that , from now on , your marks can be consulted through your Website ...Let's surf ! bounce bounce Wink

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

Sun Apr 12, 2009 11:32 pm by Lily

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

The process of applying for a research studentship begins with the identification of a potential supervisor. If you already know a staffmember who is willing to work with you to develop a research proposal,please start by contacting them. If you do not have a supervisor inmind already, …



    The Grapes of Wrath

    Share
    avatar
    zizou.lamine

    Male
    Number of posts : 6
    Age : 34
    Location : Batna/Algeria
    Job/hobbies : Exchange Languages : English , Français , Deutsch , عربية ,Chinese "中文"
    Humor : It depends ...
    Registration date : 2009-10-25

    Re: The Grapes of Wrath

    Post by zizou.lamine on Fri Feb 19, 2010 12:36 pm

    ...
    No comment
    avatar
    smilly girl

    Female
    Number of posts : 2
    Age : 28
    Location : Batna
    Job/hobbies : student of english 3rd year
    Humor : smilling all the time........happy
    Registration date : 2009-10-20

    Re: The Grapes of Wrath

    Post by smilly girl on Wed Feb 17, 2010 1:57 am

    thank you so much miss ......it's very helpful
    avatar
    Lily
    Admin

    Female
    Number of posts : 776
    Age : 41
    Location : Montreal/Canada
    Job/hobbies : University Teacher / Phd Student /Fitness Coach
    Humor : Optimist
    Registration date : 2009-03-03

    Re: The Grapes of Wrath

    Post by Lily on Sun Jun 14, 2009 1:08 am

    Historical Background
    After the First World War turned European farmlands into battlefields, American agriculture prospered. To improve productivity, the U.S. agricultural industry borrowed money for machinery and more land. When Europe resumed production after the war, American farm owners received far less for wheat, corn, and other crops. Consequently, they had to struggle to repay loans. Banks began to seize the property of defaulting landowners and evict sharecroppers living and working on the farms. After the stock market crashed in 1929, the world economy entered a deep depression. On farms that escaped foreclosure, financial prolems worsened. Meanwhile, parts of Oklahoma, Kansas, Texas, New Mexico, and Colorado experienced widespread soil erosion as a result of overplanting that stripped away grasses needed to hold the soil in place. Then, between 1934 and 1937, drought and wind turned these agricultural heartlands into what a newspaper called a "dust bowl." Banks seized more farms, leaving hundreds of thousands of sharecroppers and other farm laborers without work. Because these workers had little or no training in other occupations, their prospects for new employment were severely limited. As a result, many of them moved west, to California, responding to handbills advertising for field workers. Farm jobs in California were thought to be plentiful partly because of its favorable climate year round. The fictional Joad family, on whom Steinbeck’s novel centers, enters the stream of job seekers bound for California full of hope–and little else.
    Plot Summary .Drought settles in near the end of May in Oklahoma. Day after day, the sun scorches the crops, and soon the earth crusts over and turns to powder. By June, road traffic and wind carry the dust high into the air, and the sun becomes a “dim red circle,” the narrator says. The country is already in the midst of a terrible economic depression. Now the hard times become even harder for Oklahomans making their living off the land, as well as for farm laborers in neighboring states..During this time, the Oklahoma state prison at McAlester releases a man of no more than thirty who hopes to resume working on his family's tenant farm. While hitchhiking home in his gray cap and cheap hardcloth suit, he approaches a roadside restaurant near Shawnee and sits on the running board of a truck emblazoned with capital letters: "OKLAHOMA CITY TRANSPORT." He mops his brow with his
    cap. Inside the restaurant, the truck driver pays his bill and puts his change, two nickels, into a slot machine. No luck.
    ."They fix 'em so you can't win nothing," the driver tells the waitress. ."Guy took the jackpot not three hours ago," she says. "Three-eighty he got." ..When the driver returns to his truck, the man on the running board asks for a ride. The driver notes the “No Riders” sticker on the windshield, but the hitchhiker says, “Sure—I seen it. But sometimes a guy’ll be a good guy even if some rich bastard makes him carry a sticker.”The hitchhiker gets his ride. After the truck pulls out, the driver asks questions to pass the time, and his passenger introduces himself as Tom Joad. His father, old Tom Joad, is a sharecropper on a forty-acre farm in eastern Oklahoma. When the driver talks about his effort to improve himself—he’s taking a correspondence course in mechanical engineering—Joad takes a flask of whiskey from a coat pocket and offers the driver a swig.
    .......“A guy can’t drink liquor all the time and study like I’m goin’ to,” the driver says.
    .......Joad then takes two gulps and, later, another swallow.
    .......“You know where I come from, don’t you?” Joad says, aware that the driver has noticed his prison apparel. “Sure I been in McAlester,” Joad says. “Sure these is the clothes they give me when I come out. I don’t give a damn who knows it. An’ I’m goin’ to my old man’s place so I don’t have to lie to get a job.” .Just before the driver drops him at the turnoff to the Joad farm, Tom says he was sentenced to seven years for killing a man but got out in four for good behavior..On the highway leading to the farm, Joad watches as the driver of a light truck deliberately swerves to hit a turtle. A tire strikes the edge of its shell and spins the turtle off the road. On its back, the turtle reaches out, finds a rock, turns itself over, and resumes its journey.
    .......Along the way to the farm, Joad meets a lean, gray-haired man in overalls sitting against a tree, whistling and singing. It is Jim Casy, a preacher who baptized Tom when he was a boy. But he’s no longer a man of the cloth, he says, because the spirit isn’t in him anymore and because “I ain’t so sure of a lot of things.” Joad offers him a drink and he takes three good swallows. Casy says there was a time when he’d conduct a revival meeting, then go off into the grass with one of the girls..“I figgered there just wasn’t no hope for me, an’ I was a damned hypocrite.”
    .Now, he no longer accepts orthodox beliefs about sin and religion. What counts is love and belief in the human spirit, he says. Casy, unaware that Joad has been in prison, says, “Been travelin’ around?” Joad then brings him up to date: At a dance where there was plenty of alcohol going around, a man named Herb Turnbull “got a knife in me, an’ I killed him with a shovel layin’ there.” He was sentenced to seven years but paroled in four.
    .......Casy, who ’s not sure what the future holds for him, tags along with Joad while they go to the farm. At the top of a hill, they look down on it. Joad notices right away that “They ain’t nobody there.”
    .......Banks had seized the land of the Joads and other sharecroppers. When land produces no crops, it has to be turned to another use and maybe sold to easterners who have expressed interest in owning a piece of land. Where do the families go? How do they eat? Where do the men get work? The bank can’t worry about those things. It is a monster that feeds on profit, the narrator says..While Joad and Casy look over the old place, Muley Graves, an old friend of Tom’s, comes along with a gunnysack containing three rabbits he killed. When he and his wife and children were forced off the land, Muley decided to stick around while the rest of his family headed west. Now he just wanders “like a ol’ graveyard ghos,’” sleeping here, sleeping there. Tom asks Muley where his folks are and why the Joad place “is all smashed up.” Muley says the landowners hired a bulldozer to ram the house to force the Joads off the land. They moved to Tom’s Uncle John’s place, where they are working the cotton fields to make enough money to go to California.That night, Muley, Tom, and Jim Casy roast the rabbits and eat around the fire. When they see the glow of headlights at the top of a nearby hill, Muley says they should hide because they are now trespassers on someone else’s land. At first, Tom is reluctant to get up, saying, “I hate to get pushed around.” But Muley tells him that the car might be Willy Feeley’s.
    .......“He’s got a gun,” Muley says. “He’ll use it ‘cause he’s a deputy [sheriff].”
    .......Tom, Muley, and Jim Casy hide in a field as the car pulls up and pans a spotlight around the area. Two men get out, look around, put out the fire, and then get back in the car and leave. Tom and his two companions then walk off and sleep in the countryside.
    .......Before dawn, Tom and Jim begin the trek to Uncle John’s place while Muley goes his own way. When the two men arrive, Tom’s father is nailing rails to a Hudson Super Six sedan that he is converting into a pickup truck.
    .......“It’s Tommy come home,” Pa Joad says when he sees his son. A worried look crosses his face and he says, “You ain’t busted out? You ain’t got to hide?” .Tom explains everything. Then they go inside. When Ma sees Tom, she says, “Oh, Thank God!” After Tom tells her about the parole, her “joy was nearly like sorrow,” the narrator says. Tom then gets reacquainted with his Grampa, who is a cantankerous, carping, mischievous old man with a dirty mouth; his Granma, who is just as tough as Grampa and full of the fire of old-time religion; and his older brother, Noah, who is calm, quiet, slow-moving, and never gets angry. Although he gives the impression that he is stupid and deformed, he is neither. But he is strange. Pa thinks he knows why. When Ma went into labor with Noah, the midwife had not yet arrived. Frantic with worry and fright by Ma’s screaming, he pulled the baby out, twisting it this way and that. When the midwife arrived, she had to “mold” the boy. Pa has felt guilty about the incident ever since and has always treated Noah kindly. Other family members are out. Little Ruthie, 12, and Winfield, 10—Tom’s youngest siblings—went with Uncle John to Sallisaw with a load of the Joads’ belongings to sell: tools, chickens, a pump, and so on. Rose of Sharon is with her husband, Connie Rivers, visiting his folks. Both are teenagers. Rose is pregnant. Al, 16, is gallivanting around. He likes girls and cars and is good at repairing and tuning engines. He looks up to Tom.
    Ma is optimistic about going to California.
    I like to think how nice it's gonna be, maybe, in California. Never cold. An' fruit ever'place, an' people just bein' in the nicest places, little white houses in among the orange trees. I wonder—that is, if we all get job an' all work—maybe we can get one of them little white houses. An' the little fellas go out an' pick oranges right off the tree.

    But Tom is wary. "I knowed a fella from California. . . . . He says they's too many folks lookin' for work right there now. An' he says the folks that pick the fruit live in dirty ol' camps an' don't hardly get enough to eat. He says wages is low an' hard to get any."
    Ma says she heard otherwise. "Your father got a han'bill on yella paper, tellin' how they need folks to work. They wouldn' go to that trouble if they wasn't plenty of work. Costs 'em good money to get them han'bills out."
    .......After the Joads sell other belongings, they accept Tom's recommendation to leave the following morning. The group will include all of the Joads, Rose of Sharon's husband, and Jim Casy, as well as the family dog. As a final preparation, the Joads slaughter pigs and make salt pork for the journey. In the morning, after the family loads the Hudson—now a truck with pine-wood sideboards—Grampa refuses to leave, saying, “This here’s my country. I b’long here.” After they fail to persuade him to go, they drug his coffee with “soothin’ syrup” that Ma gave Winfield for earaches. When Grampa falls asleep, they carry him onto the truck.
    .......All takes the wheel and the truck chugs along at 35 miles an hour as it passes through a string of small towns–Sallisaw, Gore, Warner, Checotah, Henrietta (Henryetta), and Castle. Near Paden, they pull over for gas and a drink of water. The dog gets off and sniffs around. Rose of Sharon screams when the dog, wandering onto the highway, gets hit by a big car. The car slows momentarily, then speeds away from the mess of blood and intestines on the highway. After Tom drags the dog off the road, Rose of Sharon discovers that Granma is missing and goes to a restroom to look for her. She comes back with the old woman, who had fallen asleep in the toilet.
    .......“It’s nice in there,” she says.
    .......When they resume their journey, Tom takes over the driving. After traveling through Meeker and Harrah, they pass through Oklahoma City.
    .......“It was so big and strange it frightened them,” the narrator says.
    .......On the outskirts of the city, they pick up Route 66, the famous concrete highway that goes all the way to Bakersfield, California, via Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.
    .......Ma begins to worry about Tom, saying Pa told her that parolees are not supposed to leave the state. But Tom assures her that he will be all right as long as he stays out of trouble. After going through Bethany, they see an old touring car in a ditch and a tent next to it and decide to stop there to eat. They make friends with the couple traveling in the car, Ivy Wilson and his wife, Sairy, from Galena, Kansas. Their Dodge touring car has broken down, but Al says he can fix it with Tom’s help. While the children fetch water from a nearby gas station, Noah, Uncle John, and Jim Casy help Grampa down from the truck. When he says he is sick and begins to cry, Sairy invites him into her tent to rest. After lying down on a mattress, Grampa's legs and hands move about and his face turns red. Casy thinks he is having a stroke. Sairy agrees, saying she has witnessed strokes on three other occasions. A short while later, Grampa dies..Because the Joads lack the money for a funeral and legal burial, they decide bury him there, next to the road. Ma washes the body, and Sairy provides a quilt in which to wrap it. When they bury Grampa, Casy says words over the body. Then they eat. The Joads and Wilsons decide to travel together, enabling some of the Joads to ride with the Wilsons. Meanwhile, if their car breaks down again, Al will be around to fix it.
    avatar
    Lily
    Admin

    Female
    Number of posts : 776
    Age : 41
    Location : Montreal/Canada
    Job/hobbies : University Teacher / Phd Student /Fitness Coach
    Humor : Optimist
    Registration date : 2009-03-03

    Re: The Grapes of Wrath

    Post by Lily on Sat Jun 13, 2009 10:48 pm

    Type of Work, Date of Publication, and Critical Reception
    The Grapes of Wrath is a realistic novel depicting the grim struggle of impoverished sharecroppers to find work and maintain their dignity. Viking Press published the work on April 14, 1939. Many reviewers praised the novel, which went on to win a 1940 Pulitzer Prize for fiction. Others reviewers criticized it for sentimentality and frequent interruption of the main story with chapters providing general background information. Not a few politicians and businessmen criticized it as socialist propaganda that exaggerated the problems of migrant workers, and some religious groups objected to it for its profanity. Nevertheless, the book became a bestseller, and it remains popular today as a classic novel of social protest. It continues to generate controversy, however, when discussed solely on its literary merits. Whether it will ultimately merit inclusion in the list of great American literary works of the first half of the 20th Century remains to be seen.
    The Title
    .......The title alludes to the words "grapes of wrath" in Julia Ward Howe's "Battle Hymn of the Republic." Howe's words, in turn, allude to Chapter 63, Verses 1 to 6, of the book of the prophet Isaiah in the Old Testament of the Bible. In these verses, Isaiah, who lived in the Eighth Century B.C., envisions the Lord in the role of the Messiah coming forth from the lands of the wicked after punishing their inhabitants. Arrayed in bloodstained robes, He tells Isaiah that He has trampled the enemies of Israel as if they were grapes from a bad harvest, thereby venting His wrath. The juice of these bad grapes–that is, the blood of the enemies of the Lord–splatters his robes. In Steinbeck's book, the grapes of wrath are the harvests planted by landowners and growers. Here are the pertinent verses from Isaiah as presented in the Douay-Rheims Bible, Challoner Revision: 63:1. Who is this that cometh from Edom, with dyed garments from Bosra, this beautiful one in his robe, walking in the greatness of his strength.
    .........I, that speak justice, and am a defender to save.
    Edom... Edom and Bosra (a strong city of Edom) are here taken in a mystical sense for the enemies of Christ and his church.
    63:2. Why then is thy apparel red, and thy garments like theirs that tread in the winepress?
    63:3. I have trodden the winepress alone, and of the Gentiles there is not a man with me: I have trampled on them in my.indignation, and have trodden them down in my wrath, and their blood is sprinkled upon my garments, and I have stained all my apparel.
    63:4. For the day of vengeance is in my heart, the year of my redemption is come.
    63:5. I looked about, and there was none to help: I sought, and there was none to give aid: and my own arm hath saved for me, and my indignation itself hath helped me.
    63:6. And I have trodden down the people in my wrath, and have made them drunk in my indignation, and have brought down ..their strength to the earth.
    The words of the first stanza of Howe's "Battle Hymn of the Republic" are as follows:

    Mine eyes have seen the glory of the coming of the Lord He is trampling out the vintage where the grapes of wrath are stored, He has loosed the fateful lightning of His terrible swift sword His truth is marching on.
    Narration and Structure
    The narrator tells the story in third-person point of view. Generally, the narrator is omniscient, or all-knowing, seeing and reporting the thoughts of the characters as well as witnessing and reporting the action. At times, however, he reports only the action without revealing the characters' thoughts. The narration alternates between chapters centering on society, nature, universal themes, or background information and chapters centering on specific people and places. For example, Chapter 1 presents information about the the Dust Bowl and society's reaction to it. Chapter 2 centers on Tom Joad and a truck driver who gives Tom a ride home after his release from prison. Chapter 3 centers on a turtle that exhibits the kind of perseverance that sustains the Joad family during their journey west. Chapter 4 focuses on Tom and Jim Casy, a former preacher who tags along with Tom. Chapter 5 presents general information on how banks evict tenant farmers. Chapter 6 zeroes in on Tom, Casy, and Muley Graves at the abandoned Joad homestead. The narration continues to alternate chapters in this way, giving the novel a balanced structure.
    Themes
    Kinship: Ma Joad repeatedly stresses the importance of family bonds. If the Joads stand together in familial love, they can have a meaningful and worthwhile life. Ma applies her philosophy to society as a whole, regarding all men as brothers. She welcomes Jim Casy and the Wilsons; she feeds hungry children at a migrant camp even though she has barely enough food for her own family. The example she sets greatly influences her daughter, Rose of Sharon, who, the end of the novel, nurses a starving man with her breast milk.
    Unity and Cooperation: Casy espouses unity and cooperation in his attempts to organize the migrant workers into a single voice that demands justice and fair wages. After Casy dies, Tom Joad decides to devote himself to carrying on Casy’s cause. Ma Joad also espouses unity and cooperation, stressing the importance of maintaining family ties and of cooperating with others to achieve common goals. After meeting the Wilsons on the road, she says, “Each’ll help each, an’ we’ll all git to California.”
    Love: Casy, a former preacher, believes that loving fellow human beings and acting on their behalf is more important than ranting from the pulpit and warning people to live by the letter of the law. He willingly accepts blame and goes to jail for an offense that he did not commit. And he dies in the service of fellow human beings. Some scholars regard him as a Christ figure: His initials are J. C. and he lays down his life for others.
    Perseverance in the Face of Hostility:
    The third chapter of the novel presents this theme when a truck deliberately runs over a turtle, knocking it to the side of the road. On its back, the turtle reaches out with its legs, grabs onto a rock, rights itself, and resumes its journey. This chapter foreshadows the response of the Joads to the troubles they face on their journey.
    Deceit: Landowners and labor contractors lure the impoverished to California with handbills promising jobs for everyone. This tactic is a ploy to attract more workers than needed and then to offer the jobs to those willing to accept meager wages.
    Prejudice: Many Californians assume that Oklahoma migrants are the lowest of the low and give them a name, Okies, charged with negative connotations. “Okie means you’re scum,” one migrant worker tells Tom.
    Greed: Car salesmen take advantage of migrants desperate for transportation to California. A business charges traveling migrants for water. Landowners pay migrants very low wages in order to turn a profit.
    Hope: Ma Joad never loses hope for a better future. Tom’s decision to continue Casy’s effort to organize workers and Rose of Sharon’s simple act of nursing a starving man both suggest Ma’s hope is not unfounded. Where people help each other, there is every reason to believe that good will come of it.
    Climax
    . The climax of the novel is the murder of Jim Casy as an event that spurs Tom Joad to become a union organizer, like Casy.
    Foreshadowing
    Chapter 3 foreshadows events in the rest of the novel. This chapter describes the southwest journey of a turtle on a concrete highway. After a light truck deliberately swerves to hit it, the turtle spins on its shell to the side of the road and comes to rest on its back. Reaching out with a foreleg, it finds a rock, pulls itself upright, and resumes its journey. The turtle symbolizes the Joad family on its journey west to California on Route 66, a concrete highway, and the light truck symbolizes the adversaries and obstacles they encounter along the way. Finally, the turtle's recovery and resumption of its journey symbolize the resolve of the Joads, led by Ma, to reach their destination and begin life anew.
    Conflicts
    The Joads must battle numerous forces, three of which are beyond their control: the severely depressed economy, the terrible drought, and the illnesses that kill Grampa and Granma Joad. Their human adversaries include demanding bankers who evict sharecroppers with bulldozers, greedy businessmen, corrupt law officers, and prejudiced middle- and upper-class citizens. The Joads also fight forces within themselves. For example, Pa Joad and Uncle John struggle against guilt for past deeds, and Tom Joad grapples with his headstrong ways and quick temper. Like the Joads, Jim Casy faces internal and external conflicts. In his soul, he struggles toward a new religious outlook. Outwardly, he battles unfair labor practices.
    avatar
    Lily
    Admin

    Female
    Number of posts : 776
    Age : 41
    Location : Montreal/Canada
    Job/hobbies : University Teacher / Phd Student /Fitness Coach
    Humor : Optimist
    Registration date : 2009-03-03

    John Steinbeck's Major Works

    Post by Lily on Sun Apr 05, 2009 10:42 pm

    Major Works
    Of Mice and Men
    Main article: Of Mice and Men
    Of Mice and Men is a tragedy that was written in the form of a play in 1937. The story is about two traveling ranch workers, Georgeand Lennie, trying to work up enough money to buy their own farm/ranch.It encompasses themes of racism, loneliness, prejudice against thementally ill, and the struggle for personal independence. Along with Grapes of Wrath, East of Eden, and The Pearl, Of Mice and Men is one of Steinbeck's best known works. It was made into a movie three times, in 1939 starring Burgess Meredith, Lon Chaney Jr., and Betty Field, in 1982 starring Randy Quaid, Robert Blake and Ted Neeley, and in 1992 starring Gary Sinise and John Malkovich.
    The Grapes of Wrath
    Main article: The Grapes of Wrath
    The Grapes of Wrath was written in 1939 and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1940. The book is set in the Great Depression and describes a family of sharecroppers, the Joads, who were driven from their land due to the dust storms of the Dust Bowl. The title is a reference to the Battle Hymn of the Republic. The book was made into a film in 1940 starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford.
    East of Eden
    Main article: East of Eden
    Steinbeck deals with the nature of good and evil in this Salinas Valley saga. The story follows two families: the Hamiltons - based onSteinbeck's own maternal ancestry - and the Trasks, reprising storiesabout the Biblical Adam and his progeny. The book was published in 1952.
    Travels With Charley
    Main article: Travels With Charley: In Search of America
    In 1960, Steinbeck bought a pickup truck and had it modified with a custom-built camper top - rare for that day - and drove across theUnited States with his faithful poodle, Charley. In this sometimescomical, sometimes melancholic book, Steinbeck describes what he sees from Maine to Montana to California, and from there to Texas and Louisiana and back to his home in Long Island. The restored camper truck is on exhibit in the National Steinbeck Center in Salinas, California.
    Works

    • Cup of Gold (1929)
    • The Pastures of Heaven (1932)
    • The Red Pony (1933)
    • To a God Unknown (1933)
    • Tortilla Flat (1935)
    • The Harvest Gypsies: On the Road to the Grapes of Wrath (1936)
    • In Dubious Battle (1936)
    • Of Mice and Men (1937)
    • The Long Valley (1938)
    • The Grapes of Wrath (1939)
    • Forgotten Village (1941)
    • Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research (1941)
    • The Moon Is Down (1942)
    • Bombs Away: The Story of a Bomber Team (1942)
    • Cannery Row (1945)
    • The Wayward Bus (1947)
    • The Pearl (1947)
    • A Russian Journal (1948)
    • Burning Bright (1950)
    • The Log from the Sea of Cortez (1951)
    • East of Eden (1952)
    • Sweet Thursday (1954)
    • The Short Reign of Pippin IV: A Fabrication (1957)
    • Once There Was A War (1958)
    • The Winter of Our Discontent (1961)
    • Travels with Charley: In Search of America (1962)
    • America and Americans (1966)
    avatar
    Lily
    Admin

    Female
    Number of posts : 776
    Age : 41
    Location : Montreal/Canada
    Job/hobbies : University Teacher / Phd Student /Fitness Coach
    Humor : Optimist
    Registration date : 2009-03-03

    John Steinbeck

    Post by Lily on Sun Apr 05, 2009 10:26 pm

    Gallery

    John Ernst Steinbeck III


    Steinbeck (center), with son John (left), visits President Johnson

    Critical success


    Early life




    132 Central Avenue, Salinas, where Steinbeck lived until he was 17
    avatar
    Lily
    Admin

    Female
    Number of posts : 776
    Age : 41
    Location : Montreal/Canada
    Job/hobbies : University Teacher / Phd Student /Fitness Coach
    Humor : Optimist
    Registration date : 2009-03-03

    Re: The Grapes of Wrath

    Post by Lily on Sun Apr 05, 2009 9:22 pm

    Narration and Structure
    The narrator tells the story in third-person point of view. Generally, the narrator is omniscient, or all-knowing, seeing and reporting the thoughts of the characters as well as witnessing and reporting the action. At times, however, he reports only the action without revealing the characters' thoughts. The narration alternates between chapters centering on society, nature, universal themes,or background information and chapters centering on specific people and places. For example, Chapter 1 presents information about the the Dust Bowl and society's reaction to it. Chapter 2 centers on Tom Joad and a truck driver who gives Tom a ride home after his release from prison. Chapter 3 centers on a turtle that exhibits the kind of perseverance that sustains the Joad family during their journey west. Chapter 4 focuses on Tom and Jim Casy, a former preacher who tags along with Tom. Chapter 5 presents general information on how banks evict tenant farmers. Chapter 6 zeroes in on Tom, Casy, and Muley Graves at the abandoned Joad homestead. The narration continues to alternate chapters in this way, giving the novel a balanced structure.
    Themes
    .Kinship: Ma Joad repeatedly stresses the importance of family bonds. If the Joads stand together in familial love, they can have a meaningful and worthwhile life.Ma applies her philosophy to society as a whole, regarding all men as brothers.She welcomes Jim Casy and the Wilsons; she feeds hungry children at a migrant camp even though she has barely enough food for her own family. The example she sets greatly influences her daughter, Rose of Sharon, who, the end of the novel, nurses a starving man with her breast milk.
    Unity and Cooperation:
    Casy espouses unity and cooperation in his attempts to organize the migrant workers into a single voice that demands justice and fair wages. After Casy dies, Tom Joad decides to devote himself to carrying on Casy’s cause.Ma Joad also espouses unity and cooperation, stressing the importance of maintaining family ties and of cooperating with others to achieve common goals. After meeting the Wilsons on the road, she says, “Each’ll help each, an’ we’ll all git to California.”
    Love: Casy, a former preacher, believes that loving fellow human beings and acting on their behalf is more important than ranting from the pulpit and warning people to live by the letter of the law. He willingly accepts blame and goes to jail for an offense that he did not commit. And he dies in the service of fellow human beings. Some scholars regard him as a Christ figure: His initials are J. C. and he lays down his life for others.
    Perseverance in the Face of Hostility: The third chapter of the novel presents this theme when a truck deliberately runs over a turtle, knocking it to the side of the road. On its back, the turtle reaches out with its legs, grabs onto a rock,rights itself, and resumes its journey. This chapter foreshadows the response of the Joads to the troubles they face on their journey.
    Deceit: Landowners and labor contractors lure the impoverished to California with handbills promising jobs for everyone. This tactic is a ploy to attract more workers than needed and then to offer the jobs to those willing to accept meager wages.
    Prejudice: Many Californians assume that Oklahoma migrants are the lowest of the low and give them a name, Okies, charged with negative connotations. “Okie means you’re scum,”one migrant worker tells Tom.
    Greed: Car salesmen take advantage of migrants desperate for transportation to California.A business charges traveling migrants for water. Landowners pay migrants very low wages in order to turn a profit.
    Hope: Ma Joad never loses hope for a better future. Tom’s decision to continue Casy’s effort to organize workers and Rose of Sharon’s simple act of nursing a starving man both suggest Ma’s hope is not unfounded. Where people help each other,there is every reason to believe that good will come of it.
    Climax
    The climax of the novel is the murder of Jim Casy as an event that spurs Tom Joad to become a union organizer, like Casy.
    Foreshadowing Chapter 3 foreshadows events in the rest of the novel. This chapter describes the southwest journey of a turtle on a concrete highway. After a light truck deliberately swerves to hit it, the turtle spins on its shell to the side of the road and comes to rest on its back. Reaching out with a foreleg, it finds a rock, pulls itself upright, and resumes its journey. The turtle symbolizes the Joad family on its journey west to California on Route 66, a concrete highway,and the light truck symbolizes the adversaries and obstacles they encounter along the way. Finally, the turtle's recovery and resumption of its journey symbolize the resolve of the Joads, led by Ma, to reach their destination and begin life anew.
    Conflicts
    The Joads must battle numerous forces, three of which are beyond their control: the severely depressed economy, the terrible drought, and the illnesses that kill Grampa and Granma Joad. Their human adversaries include demanding bankers who evict sharecroppers with bulldozers, greedy businessmen, corrupt law officers, and prejudiced middle- and upper-class citizens. The Joads also fight forces within themselves.For example, Pa Joad and Uncle John struggle against guilt for past deeds,and Tom Joad grapples with his headstrong ways and quick temper. Like the Joads, Jim Casy faces internal and external conflicts. In his soul, he struggles toward a new religious outlook. Outwardly, he battles unfair labor practices.
    Steinbeck's Writing Techniques
    Steinbeck uses a variety of writing techniques in The Grapes of Wrath to enhance his presentation. One of them is his somewhat poetic descriptions of nature.They frequently employ personification, as in the following two paragraphs from Chapter 1 in which a cunning wind uproots corn (much as the banks and landowners root up the tenant farmers) but later cries and whimpers over the corn (perhaps in mockery)The wind grew stronger, whisked under stones, carried up straws and old leaves,and even little clods, marking its course as it sailed across the fields.The air and the sky darkened and through them the sun shone redly, andthere was a raw sting in the air. During a night the wind raced fasterover the land, dung cunningly among the rootlets of the corn, and the cornfought the wind with its weakened leaves until the roots were freed bythe prying wind and then each stalk settled wearily sideways toward theearth and pointed the direction of the wind.;.Thedawn came, but no day. In the gray sky a red sun appeared, a dim red circlethat gave a little light, like dusk; and as that day advanced, the duskslipped back toward darkness, and the wind cried and whimpered over the fallen corn.
    Another technique is the use of omniscient narration in passages in which characters unidentified by name reveal their thoughts in second-person point of view.In the following passage from Chapter 7, Steinbeck employs this techniqueto reveal the thoughts of a dishonest car salesman:Watch the woman'sface. If the woman likes it [a car] we can screw the old man. Start 'emon that Cad'. Then you can work 'em down to that '26 Buick. 'F you start on the Buick, they'll go for a Ford. Roll up your sleeves an' get to work..A third technique is the use of dialogue that imitates the patois of particular regions and social classes. The following conversation from Chapter 13 takes place after the death of Grampa Joad. Young Al is upset that Grampa died before having a chance to experience the wonders of California, especially the grapes that he was going to squeeze over his head in a joyous celebration.But in an attempt to comfort and enlighten Al—as well as Pa and Uncle John—Jim Casy tells him that Grampa was not at all looking forward to living in California He was foolin' all the time [about wanting to see California]. I think heknowed it. An' Grampa didn' die tonight. He died the minute you took 'imoff the place [the Oklahoma farm]..."Yousure a that?" Pa cried...."Why,no. Oh, he was breathin'," Casy went on, "but he was dead. He was thatplace [the farm], an' he knowed it."..UncleJohn said, "Did you know he was a-dying.."Yeah,"said Casy. "I knowed it."....Johngazed at him and a horror grew in his face. "An' you didn' tell nobody?..."Whatgood?" Casy asked."We--wemight of did somepin.".."What?"..."I don't know, but--".."No,"Casy said, "you couldn' a done nothin'. Your way was fixed an' Grampa didn't have no part in it. He didn' suffer none. Not after fust thing this mornin'.He's jus' stayin' with the lan'. He couldn' leave it.
    "
    .A fourth technique is the rat-a-tat presentation of abundant specific details to capture the atmosphere of a particular locale. Consider, for example,the opening paragraph of Chapter 15:
    .Along66 the hamburger stands—Al & Susy's Place—Carl's Lunch—Joe & Minnie—Will'sEats. Board-and-bat shacks. Two gasoline pumps in front, a screen door,a long bar, stools, and a foot rail. Near the door three slot machines,showing through the glass the wealth in nickels three bars will bring.And beside them, the nickel phonograph with records piled up like pies,ready to swing out to the turntable and play dance music, "Ti-pi-ti-pi-tin,""Thanks for the Memory," Bing Crosby, Benny Goodman. At one end of thecounter, a covered case; candy cough drops, caffeine sulphate called Sleepless,No-Doze; candy, cigarettes, razor blades, aspirin, Bromo-Seltzer, Alka-Seltzer.The walls decorated with posters, bathing girls, blondes with big breastsand slender hips and waxen faces, in white bathing suits, and holding abottle of Coca-Cola and smiling—see what you get with a Coca-Cola. Longbar, and salts, peppers, mustard pots, and paper napkins. Beer taps behindthe counter, and in back the coffee urns, shiny and steaming, with glassgauges showing the coffee level. And pies in wire cages and oranges inpyramids of four. And little piles of Post Toasties, corn flakes, stacked[b] up in designs.
    Symbolism..
    Among the symbols that Steinbeck uses in the novel are the following:
    Dust: 1 Utter ruination of a way of life; death; (2) forces beyond the control of the Joads.
    The Turtle: Perseverance of the Joads.
    Light Truck That Hits
    the Turtle
    : Law officers and others hostile toward the Joads.
    Bulldozer: The brute power of the unfeeling, indifferent banks.
    Route 66: The lands traversed by Moses and the Israelites on their way toward Canaan.
    The Thousands of Migrants
    on the Road
    : The Israelites in their exodus from Egypt.
    California: False Promised Land.
    Rose of Sharon: Fertile and plantable future for the Joads. Sharon is a fertile plain along the coast of Israel, and a rose of sharon is a shrub with showy flowers. Early in the novel, Rose is the showy flower; late in the novel, she is the fertile plain full of promise and nourishment for survival. In the Bible, the rose of Sharon is mentioned in Chapter 2, Verse 1, of the Canticle of Canticles(or Song of Solomon).



    avatar
    Lily
    Admin

    Female
    Number of posts : 776
    Age : 41
    Location : Montreal/Canada
    Job/hobbies : University Teacher / Phd Student /Fitness Coach
    Humor : Optimist
    Registration date : 2009-03-03

    Grapes of Wrath 2

    Post by Lily on Sun Apr 05, 2009 8:55 pm

    Characters


    • Tom Joad — Protagonist of the story; the Joad family's second son, named for his father.
    • Ma Joad — matriarch.Practical and warm-spirited, she tries to hold the family together. Her given name is never learned; it is suggested that her maiden name wasHazlett.
    • Pa Joad — patriarch, also named Tom. Hardworking sharecropper and family man.
    • Uncle John — Older brother of Pa Joad, feels responsible for the death of his young wife years before when he ignored her pleas for a doctor because he thought she just had a stomachache. He tries to repress "sins" such as drinking, then fulfills them with gross excesses like binge drinking.
    • Jim Casy — A preacher who loses his faith after committing fornication with willing members of his church numerous times, and from his perception that religion has no solace or answer for the difficulties the people are experiencing.Christ figure, shares his initials with Jesus.
    • Al Joad — The second youngest son who cares mainly for cars and girls; looks up to Tom, but begins to find his own way. Over the book's course he gradually matures and learns responsibility.
    • Rose of Sharon Rivers ("Rosasharn") — Childish and dreamy teenage daughter who develops as the novel progresses to become a mature woman. She symbolizes regrowth when she helps the starving stranger (see also Roman Charity, works of art based on the legend of a daughter as wet nurse to her dying father). Pregnant in the beginning of the novel, she delivers a stillborn baby, probably as a result of malnutrition.
    • Connie Rivers — Rose of Sharon's husband. Young and naive,he is overwhelmed by the responsibilities of marriage and impending fatherhood, and abandons her shortly after arriving in California.
    • Noah Joad — The oldest son who is the first to willingly leave the family, choosing to stay by an idyllic river and survive by fishing. Injured at birth, described as "strange", he may have slight learning difficulties or autistic spectrum disorder.
    • Grampa (William) Joad — Tom's grandfather who expresses his strong desire to stay in Oklahoma. He is drugged to make him leave but dies shortly after of a stroke. Symbolically, it is due to his spirit staying at the farm.
    • Granma Joad — The religious wife of Grandpa Joad, she seems to lose will to live (and consequently dies while crossing the desert) after her husband's death.
    • Ruthie Joad — One of the younger children.
    • Winfield Joad — A child. The youngest male in the family. He and Ruthie are close.
    • Ivy and Sairy Wilson — Kansas folks in a similar predicament, who help attend the death of Grandpa and subsequently share the travelling with the Joads as far as the California state line.
    • Mr. Wainwright — The father of Aggie Wainwright and husband of Mrs. Wainwright. Worries over his daughter who is sixteen and in his words "growed up".
    • Mrs. Wainwright — Mother to Aggie Wainwright and wife to Mr. Wainwright. She helps deliver Rose of Sharon's stillborn baby with Ma.
    • Aggie Wainwright — Sixteen years of age. Daughter to Mr. and Mrs. Wainwright. Intends on marrying Al. She has limited interactions with the other characters, but does speak with Ruthie and Winfield when Rose of Sharon goes into labor.
    avatar
    Lily
    Admin

    Female
    Number of posts : 776
    Age : 41
    Location : Montreal/Canada
    Job/hobbies : University Teacher / Phd Student /Fitness Coach
    Humor : Optimist
    Registration date : 2009-03-03

    The Grapes of Wrath

    Post by Lily on Sun Apr 05, 2009 8:37 pm



    First edition cover
    [
    John Steinbeck
    Elmer Hader
    United States
    English
    Novel
    The Viking Press-James Lloyd 1939
    print (hardcover and paperback)535
    289946
    The Grapes of Wrath is a novel published in 1939 and written by John Steinbeck, who was awarded the Pulitzer Prize and the Nobel Prize for Literature. Set during the Great Depression, the novel focuses on a poor family of sharecroppers, the Joads, driven from their home by drought, economic hardship, and changes in the agriculture industry. In a nearly hopeless situation, they set out for California's Central Valley along with thousands of other "Okies" in search of land, jobs, and dignity.
    The Grapes of Wrath is frequently read in American high school and college literature classes. A celebrated Hollywood film version, starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford, was made in 1940, though the endings of the book and the movie differ greatly.
    Plot
    The narrative begins just after Tom Joad is paroled from prison for homicide. On his journey home, he meets a now-former preacher, Jim Casy, whom he remembers from his childhood, and the two travel together. When they arrive at his childhood farm home, they find it deserted. Disconcerted and confused, he and Casy go to his Uncle John's home nearby where he finds his family loading a converted Hudson truck with what remains of their possessions; the crops were destroyed in the Dust Bowl and as a result, the family had to default on their loans. With their farm repossessed, the Joads seek solace in hope; hope inscribed on the handbills which are distributed everywhere inOklahoma, describing the beautiful and fruitful country of California and high pay to be had in that state. The Joads, along with Jim Casy,are seduced by this advertising and invest everything they have into the journey. Although leaving Oklahoma would be breaking parole, Tom decides that it is a risk,albeit minimal, that he has to take.
    While en route, the Joad family discovers that all of the roads and the highways are saturated with other families who are also making thesame trek, ensnared by the same promise. As the Joads continue on theirjourney and hear many stories from others, some coming from California,they are forced to confront the possibility that their prospects maynot be what they hoped. This realization, supported by the deaths ofGrandpa and Grandma and the departure of Noah (the eldest Joad son) andConnie (the husband of the pregnant Joad daughter, Rose of Sharon), isforced from their thoughts: they must go on because they have nochoice--there is nothing remaining for them in Oklahoma.Upon arrival, they find little hope of finding a decent wage, as there is an oversupply of labor and a lack of rights,and the big corporate farmers are in collusion. The tragedy lies in the simplicity and impossibility of their dream: a house, a family, and a steady job. A gleam of hope is presented atWeedpatch, in one of the clean, utility-supplied camps operated by theResettlement Administration, a New Deal agency that tried to help the migrants, but there is not enough money and space to care for all of the needy.
    In response to the exploitation of laborers, the workers begin to join unions. The surviving members of the family unknowingly work as strikebreakers on an orchard involved in a strike that eventually turns violent, killing the preacher Casy and forcingTom Joad to kill again and become a fugitive. He bids farewell to hismother, promising that no matter where he runs, he will be a tirelessadvocate for the oppressed. Rose of Sharon's baby is stillborn;however, Ma Joad remains steadfast and forces the family through thebereavement. In the end, Rose of Sharon commits the only act in thebook that is not futile: she breast feedsa man too sick from starvation to eat solid food, still trying to showhope in humanity after her own negative experience. This final act issaid to illustrate the spontaneous mutual sharing that will lead to a new awareness of collective values.

    Sponsored content

    Re: The Grapes of Wrath

    Post by Sponsored content


      Current date/time is Sun Jul 22, 2018 5:05 pm