Department of English

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A Guide For Creative Thinking

Thu Sep 17, 2009 3:12 am by BHSoft

A Guide For Creative Thinking by Brian Tracy
Einstein once said, “Every child is born a genius.” But the reason why most people do not function at genius levels is because they are not aware of how creative and smart they really are.I call it the “Schwarzenegger effect.” No one would look at a person such as Arnold Schwarzenegger and think how lucky he is to have been born with such …


Africain Literature

Wed Mar 04, 2009 8:15 pm by Lily

Things Fall Apart is a 1959 English-language novel by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. It is a staple book in schools throughout Africa and widely read and studied in English-speaking countries around the world. It is seen as the archetypal modern African novel in English, and one of the first African novels written in English to receive global critical acclaim. The title of the novel comes from [url=http://www.answers.com/topic/william-butler-yeats-3]


Algeria's Newspapers ...

Wed Mar 04, 2009 1:11 pm by Lily

study study study study



http://www.algeria press.com/
http://www.algeria press.com/alkhabar.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elwatan.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/echoroukonline.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/elmoudjahid.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/liberte.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/horizons.htm
http://www.algeria-press.com/el-massa.htm
[url=http://www.algeria-press.com/ech-chaab.htm]…


Algerian Vote

Thu Apr 09, 2009 12:39 pm by Lily

Algerians are voting in a presidential election which opposition groups have described as a charade.












American English

Fri Mar 13, 2009 4:00 pm by Maria

Going to is pronounced GONNA when it is used to show the future. But it is never reduced when it means going from one place to another.

We're going to grab a bite to eat. = We're gonna grab a bite to eat.
I'm going to the office tonight. = I'm going to the office tonight.

2. Want to and want a are both pronounced WANNA and wants to is pronounced WANSTA. Do you want to can also be reduced …

American Slangs

Sat Mar 21, 2009 8:54 pm by Maria

airhead: stupid person.
"Believe it or not, Dave can sometimes act like an airhead!"

amigo: friend (from Spanish).
"I met many amigos at Dave's ESL Cafe."

ammunition: toilet paper.
"Help! We're completely out of ammunition!"

antifreeze: alcohol.
"I'm going to need a lot of antifreeze tonight!"

armpit: dirty, unappealing place.


An Introduction to the British Civilization

Wed Nov 18, 2009 10:54 am by Maria

University of Batna First Year
English Department G: 6-7-8-9
General Culture

[center]An Introduction to the British Civilization

*The United Kingdom :

Full Name : The UK's full and official name is the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".

Location: The United Kingdom (UK) of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country …

Announcements and News

Thu Mar 05, 2009 2:55 am by Lily


"Dear students , we would like to inform you that , from now on , your marks can be consulted through your Website ...Let's surf ! bounce bounce Wink

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

Sun Apr 12, 2009 11:32 pm by Lily

Applying for Research Study in the Department of English

The process of applying for a research studentship begins with the identification of a potential supervisor. If you already know a staffmember who is willing to work with you to develop a research proposal,please start by contacting them. If you do not have a supervisor inmind already, …



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    British Civilization:Civil War

    Post by Lily on Mon May 18, 2009 11:15 pm

    English civil war, 1642–48, the conflict between King Charles I of England and a large body of his subjects, generally called the “parliamentarians,” that culminated in the defeat and execution of the king and the establishment of a republican commonwealth.
    The Nature of the Struggle
    The struggle has also been called the Puritan Revolution because the religious complexion of the king's opponents was prevailingly Puritan, and because the defeat of the king was accompanied by the abolition of episcopacy. That name, however, overemphasizes the religious element at the expense of the constitutional issues and the underlying social and economic factors. Most simply stated, the constitutional issue was one between a king who claimed to rule by divine right and a Parliament that professed itself to have rights and privileges independent of the crown and that ultimately, by its actions, claimed real sovereignty.
    Parliament in this period did not represent the full body of the English people; it was composed of and represented the nobility, country gentry, and merchants and artisans. The 16th cent. had seen a decline in the influence of the nobility and a striking rise in the numbers, wealth, and influence of the gentry and merchants, the beneficiaries of a tremendous expansion of markets and trade in Tudor times. It was from this middle class of gentry and merchants that the opposition to the crown drew most of its members. Their ambition to do away with financial and commercial restrictions and their desire to have a say in such matters as religious and foreign policies had been severely restrained by the Tudors, but on the accession (1603) of a Scottish king to the English throne the popular party began to organize its strength.
    The Rise of the Opposition
    Under James I
    James I was not long in gaining a personal unpopularity that helped to strengthen Parliament's hand. At the Hampton Court Conference (1604) he resolutely refused to compromise with Puritans on religious questions. The Parliament that met in 1604 soon clashed with the king on questions of finance and supply. James was forced to temporize because of his urgent need of money, but the dissolution of the Parliament in 1610 left feelings of bitterness on both sides.
    A new Parliament met in 1614, and the Commons engaged in quarrels not only with the king but also with the House of Lords. Because it passed not a single statute, this was called the Addled Parliament. James had little understanding of the popular unrest and aroused deeper opposition by his continued collection of impositions and benevolences, his dependence on favorites, and his scheme of a Spanish marriage for his son Charles.
    Meanwhile a legal battle was being waged in the courts, with Sir Francis Bacon zealously upholding the royal prerogative and Sir Edward Coke defending the supremacy of common law. The king dismissed Coke from the bench in 1616, but the Parliament of 1621 impeached Bacon. The last Parliament (1624) of the reign accompanied its grant of money with specific directions for its use. James's reign had raised certain fundamental questions concerning the privileges of Parliament, claimed by that body as their legal right and regarded by James as a special grant from the crown.
    Under Charles I
    Charles I, married to a French Roman Catholic princess, Henrietta Maria, proved more intractable and even less acceptable to the Puritan taste than his father, and Parliament became even more uncompromising in the new reign. The leaders of the parliamentary party—Coke, John Pym, Sir John Eliot, and John Selden—sought ways to limit the powers of the king. The Parliament of 1625 granted him the right to collect tonnage and poundage (customs duties) only for a year and not, as was customary, for his entire reign. The Parliament of 1626 went further and impeached the king's favorite, George Villiers, 1st duke of Buckingham. Charles dissolved it in anger.
    Failing to raise money without Parliament, he was forced to call a new one in 1628. The new Parliament drew up the Petition of Right, and Charles accepted it in order to get his subsidy. He continued to levy customs duties, an act that the parliamentarians declared illegal under the Petition of Right. Parliament in 1629 vigorously protested Charles's collection of tonnage and poundage and the prosecution of his opponents in the Star Chamber. The religious issue also came up, and Commons resisted the king's order to adjourn by forcing the speaker to remain in his chair while Eliot presented resolutions against “popery” and unauthorized taxation.
    In the succeeding 11 years Charles attempted to rule without a Parliament, resorting to such expedients as ship money (a tax levied originally on seaports but extended by Charles to the entire country) to raise revenue. The reprisals against Eliot and the prosecution of William Prynne and John Hampden aroused widespread indignation. Charles's chief advisers, Archbishop William Laud and Thomas Wentworth, later 1st earl of Strafford, were cordially detested.The ominous peace was broken by troubles in Scotland, where efforts to enforce Anglican episcopal policy led to the violent opposition of the Covenanters and to war in 1639 (see Bishops' Wars) and compelled Charles to seek the financial aid of Parliament. The resulting Short Parliament (1640) once more met the king's request for supply by a demand for redress of grievance. Charles offered to abandon ship money exactions, but the opposition wished to discuss more fundamental issues, and the king dissolved the Parliament in just three weeks.
    The Long Parliament
    The disasters of the second Scottish war compelled a virtual surrender by the king to the opposition, and the Long Parliament was summoned (Nov., 1640). The parliamentarians quickly enacted a series of measures designed to sweep away what they regarded as the encroachments of despotic monarchy. Those imprisoned by the Star Chamber were freed. A Triennial Act provided that no more than three years should elapse between sessions of Parliament, while another act prohibited the dissolution of Parliament without its own consent. Ship money and tonnage and poundage without parliamentary authorization were abolished. Strafford was impeached, then attainted and executed (1641) for treason; Laud was impeached and imprisoned. Star Chamber and other prerogative and episcopal courts were swept away. However, discussions on church reform along Puritan lines produced considerable disagreement, especially between the Commons and Lords.
    Despite the king's compliance to the will of the opposition thus far, he was not trusted by the parliamentary party. This distrust was given sharp focus by the outbreak (Oct., 1641) of a rebellion against English rule in Ireland; an army was needed to suppress the rebellion, but the parliamentarians feared that the king might use it against them. Led by John Pym, Parliament adopted the Grand Remonstrance, reciting the evils of Charles's reign and demanding church reform and parliamentary control over the army and over the appointment of royal ministers. The radicalism of these demands split the parliamentary party and drove many of the moderates to the royalist side. This encouraged Charles to assert himself, and in Jan., 1642, he attempted to arrest in person Pym and four other leaders of the opposition in Commons. His action made civil war inevitable.
    In the lull that followed, both Parliament and the king sought to secure fortresses, arsenals, and popular support. In June, 1642, Parliament sent to the king a statement reiterating the demands of the Grand Remonstrance, but since the proposals amounted to a complete surrender of sovereignty by the crown to Parliament, the king did not even consider them as a basis for discussion. Armed forces (including many peers from the House of Lords and a sizable minority of Commons) gathered about him in the north. Parliament organized its own army and appointed Robert Devereux, 3d earl of Essex, to head it. On Aug. 22, 1642, Charles raised his standard at Nottingham.
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    British Civilization :The long Parliament and Civil War

    Post by Lily on Sun May 17, 2009 11:04 pm

    The Long Parliament
    The Long Parliament was first called by King Charles I on 3 November 1640, six months after the dissolution of the Short Parliament and within weeks of the defeat of the English in the Bishops' Wars against Scotland. The King was reluctant to summon another Parliament but the expense of the wars had left him desperately short of money and in urgent need of parliamentary subsidies.
    The Long Parliament sat throughout the First and Second Civil wars until December 1648, when it was purged by the New Model Army. The Purged Parliament (or the "Rump" of the Long Parliament) was expelled by Oliver Cromwell in April 1653. The Long Parliament was reinstated in February 1660 after the fall of the Cromwellian Protectorate and was formally dissolved on 16 March 1660.
    Prelude to Civil War 1640-2
    During the early sessions of the Long Parliament, opposition to the King's policies was orchestrated by John Pym who focused his criticism upon the King's advisers rather than the King himself. At Pym's instigation, the Earl of StraffordArchbishop Laud were denounced as "evil councillors" and impeached within weeks of the Long Parliament first assembling.
    During1641, a series of reforms was carried out to abolish the courts of Star Chamber and High Commission and other institutions that had allowed King Charles to circumvent the common law and to rule without calling a Parliament during his eleven-year Personal Rule(1629-40).
    Financial measures of dubious legality, such as ship-money, forced loans and destraint of knighthood, were also abolished. The Triennial Act was passed in January 1641 to ensure that Parliament would be called at least once every three years. The reforms carried out by the Long Parliament before the outbreak of the civil wars eventually formed the basis of the Restoration Settlement in the 1660s. The abolition of the prerogative courts and of the Crown's right to raise money by arbitrary means were important steps towards the constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy of modern Britain.
    The Irish Uprising of October 1641 brought into sharp focus the critical issue of whether the armed forces should be controlled by the King or by Parliament. Pym and his supporters drafted the Grand Remonstrance in an attempt to undermine confidence in the King and his advisers; a new Militia Bill was proposed in Parliament but this was strenuously resisted by the King. Matters came to a head in January 1642 with the failure of the King's attempt to arrest the Five Members whom he regarded as his leading opponents in Parliament. In March, the Long Parliament decreed that its own ordinances were valid and legally binding without the need for the King's assent. With the complete breakdown of dialogue between King and Parliament, civil war became inevitable.
    The First Civil War 1642-6
    From 1642-4, Parliament's war-effort was directed by a specially appointed commission known as the Committee of Safety. After Parliament's military alliance with the Scots, the Committee of Safety was superseded by the Committee for Both Kingdoms. Around one-third of the members House of Commons and most of the House of Lords left Westminster to join the King's alternative Oxford Parliament in 1643. From 1645 onwards, "recruiter" elections were held to "recruit" or make up the numbers of MPs at Westminster.
    Money to finance Parliament's war-effort was raised initially through loans from City financiers. In November 1642, John Pym introduced the first of several innovatory financial measures with an ordinance for an assessment tax on property to be levied in London. This was the first time that Parliament had imposed a tax without the consent of a monarch. The assessment was gradually extended throughout all areas of England under parliamentary control. In March 1643, Pym introduced an ordinance for the sequestration (confiscation) of the estates of Royalist "malignants", and in July 1643 the excise ordinance imposed a purchase tax on many common goods and commodities. From early 1644,further funds were raised by the process of "compounding", whereby those whose estates had been sequestered paid a fee to Parliament to recover them.
    Under Pym's direction, Parliament organised local government through a system of county committees that were responsible for directing the general affairs of each county.Additional committees were set up to administer sequestered estates, to oversee the clergy and to levy the assessment and excise. Membership of the various committees often consisted of the same people, and in some counties powerful individuals emerged who dominated the county administration such as Sir John Gell in Derbyshire and William Purefoy in Warwickshire. Local justice continued to be administered by the High Sheriff and Justices of the Peace in each county, and local militias continued to be organised by commissioners for the militia.
    During the course of the First Civil War, members of the Long Parliament became divided over whether hostilities should be settled by negotiation with the King or by inflicting a decisive military defeat on him. The "peace party" developed into the Presbyterian faction in Parliament; the militant "war party" was associated with the Independents.
    These factions were also divided by their differing approaches to religion: the Presbyterians tended to favour a national church, while the Independents advocated the separation of church and state. However,the Presbyterians and Independents were not organised political parties in the modern sense and few MPs consistently supported one side or the other. A third "middle group" has been identified which was initially associated with John Pym and which sought to bridge the conflicting policies of the war and peace parties.
    The Purged Parliament
    After the end of the First Civil War, the victorious New Model Army became a political force in its own right. The army's involvement in the political process began over the reluctance of the Presbyterian majority in Parliament to settle arrears of pay and other grievances of the soldiers. After the Second Civil War in 1648, the army, with the connivance of some Independent MPs, carried out Pride's Purge to exclude Presbyterian sympathisers. The purged Parliament became popularly known as the Rump Parliament. This body governed the republican Commonwealth after the execution of King Charles and the abolition of the Monarchy and the House of Lords. However, army leaders grew impatient with Parliament's slow implementation of radical policies, and the Rump was expelled in April 1653, to be replaced by the short-lived Nominated AssemblyProtectorate of Oliver Cromwell.
    The Rump Parliament met again after Cromwell's death and the collapse of the Protectorate in 1659. The surviving members who had been excluded at Pride's Purge were recalled in February 1660, thus restoring the Long Parliament for its final session. This body voted on 16 March 1660 to dissolve the Long Parliament and to hold new elections. The pro-Royalist Convention Parliament that assembled in April 1660 prepared the way for the Restoration of the monarchy.
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    British Civilization :The long Parliament "3"

    Post by Lily on Sun May 17, 2009 10:48 pm


    Oliver Cromwell dissolving the Long Parliament.
    1649–1653 Rump Parliament
    Divisions emerged between various factions,culminating in Pride's Purge on 7 December 1648, when, under the orders of Oliver Cromwell's son-in-lawHenry Ireton,Colonel Pride physically barred about half of the members of Parliament from taking their seats. Many of the excluded members were Presbyterians. In the wake of the ejections, the remnant, the Rump Parliament, arranged for the trial and execution of Charles I. It was also responsible for the setting up of the Commonwealth of England in 1649.Oliver Cromwell forcibly disbanded the Rump in 1653 when it seemed they might disband his expensive army of 50,000 men. It was followed by the Barebones Parliament and then the First, Second and Third Protectorate Parliament.
    1659 recall and 1660 restoration
    After Richard Cromwell, who had succeeded his father Oliver as Lord Protector in 1658, was effectively deposed by an officers' coup
    in April, 1659, the officers re-summoned the Rump Parliament to sit. It convened on 7 May 1659, but after five months in power it again clashed with the army (led by John Lambert) and was again forcibly dissolved on 13 October 1659. Rule then passed to an unelected Committee of Safety, including Lambert; but as General George Monck,who had been Cromwell's viceroy in Scotland, began to march south,Lambert, who had ridden out to face him, lost support in London, the Navy declared for Parliament, and on 26 December 1659 the Rump was restored to power.Monck, whom Lambert had failed to confront, continued his southward march. On 3 February 1660, Monck arrived in London. After an initial show of deference to the Rump, Monck quickly found them unwilling to cooperate with his plan for a free election of a new parliament; so on 21 February 1660 he reinstated the members 'secluded' by Pride, so that they could prepare legislation for the Convention Parliament. Having called for elections for a Parliament to meet on 25 April, the Long Parliament dissolved itself on 16 March 1660.This view was confirmed by a court ruling during the treason trial of Henry Vane the Younger.
    Notable members of the Long Parliament

    • Sir John Coolepeper
    • Oliver Cromwell
    • Sir Simonds D'Ewes
    • George Digby, 2nd Earl of Bristol
    • Lucius Cary, 2nd Viscount Falkland
    • John Hampden
    • Sir Robert Harley
    • Sir Arthur Haselrig
    • Denzil Holles, 1st Baron Holles
    • Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon
    • William Lenthall
    • John Pym
    • Sir Benjamin Rudyerd
    • William Russell, 1st Duke of Bedford
    • Oliver St John
    • Sir Francis Seymour, 1st Baron Seymour of Trowbridge
    • Sir Nicholas Slanning
    • William Strode
    • James Temple
    • Sir Henry Vane the Elder
    • Sir Henry Vane the Younger
    • Sir Nicholas Crisp
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    British Civilization :The long Parliament 2

    Post by Lily on Sun May 17, 2009 10:16 pm

    The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, on 3 November 1640,following the Bishops' Wars.It received its name from the fact that through a unique Act of Parliament, it could only be dissolved with the agreement of the members,and those members did not agree to its dissolution until after the English Civil War and at the end of Interregnum in 1660.It sat from 1640 until 1649, when it was purged by the New Model Army of those who were not sympathetic to the Army's concerns. Those members who remained after the Army's purge became known as the Rump Parliament. During the Protectorate, the Rump was replaced by other Parliamentary assemblies, only to be recalled after Oliver Cromwell's death in 1658 by the Army in the hope of restoring credibility to the Army's rule. When this failed, General George MonckRestoration and dissolve the Long Parliament. This cleared the way for a new Parliament, known as the Convention Parliament, to be elected. allowed the members barred in 1649 to retake their seats so that they could pass the necessary legislation to initiate the Restoration and dissolve the Long Parliament. This cleared the way for a new Parliament, known as the Convention Parliament, to be elected.
    1640–1648
    The sole reason Charles I assembled Parliament in 1640 was to ask it to pass finance bills, since the Bishops' Wars had bankrupted him.
    The Parliament was initially influenced by John Pym and his supporters. In August 1641, it enacted legislation depriving Charles I of the powers that he had assumed since his accession. The reforms were designed to negate the possibility of Charles ruling absolutely again. The parliament also freed those imprisoned by the Star Chamber. The Triennial Act of 1641,also known as the Dissolution Act, was passed, requiring that no more than three years should elapse between sessions of Parliament.Parliament was also responsible for the impeachment and subsequent execution of the king's advisers, Archbishop William Laud and Thomas Wentworth, Earl of Strafford.The Irish Rebellion which started in October 1641 brought the control of the army back into the discussions between King and Parliament. Led by John Pym,Parliament presented the King with the Grand Remonstrance which was passed in the Commons by 11 votes (159 - 148) on 22 November 1641. It listed over 150 perceived "misdeeds" of Charles' reign including the Church (under the influence of foreign papists) and royal advisers (also "have[ing] engaged themselves to further the interests of some foreign powers") the second half of the Remonstrance proposed solutions to the "misdeeds" including church reform and Parliamentary influence over the appointment of royal ministers. December 1641 Parliament asserted that it wanted control over the appointment of the commanders of the Army and Navy in the Militia Ordinance . The king rejected the Grand Remonstrance and refused to give royal assent to the Militia Bill.The King believed that Puritans (or Dissenters) encouraged by five vociferous members of the House of Commons, John Pym, John Hampden,Denzil Holles, Sir Arthur Haselrig and William Strode along withLord Mandeville(the future Earl of Manchester) who sat in the House of Lords, had encouraged the Scots to invade England in the recent Bishops' Wars and that they were intent on turning the London mob against him. When rumours reached the court that they were also planning to impeach the Queen for alleged involvement in Catholic plots Charles decided to arrest them for treason.The Speaker of the House during the Long Parliament was William Lenthall.On 4 January 1642 the king entered the House of Commons to seize the five members. Having taken the speaker's chair and looked round in vain to discover the offending members commenting "I see the birds have flown",Charles turned to Lenthall standing below, and demanded of him whether any of those persons were in the House, whether he saw any of them and where they were. Lenthall fell on his knees and replied: "May it please your Majesty, I have neither eyes to see nor tongue to speak in this place but as the House is pleased to direct me, whose servant I am here."After his failure to capture the five members, and fearing for his family's lives, Charles left London for Oxford. Most of the royalist members of Parliament left to join him there where they formed the Oxford Parliament. Without its royalist members, the Long Parliament continued to sit during the Civil War and beyond because of the Dissolution Act.In March 1642 with the King absent from London and the war clouds gathering, Parliament decreed that its own Parliamentary Ordinances were valid laws without royal assent. The Militia Ordinance was passed on 5 March by Parliament which gave Parliament control of the local militia called Trained Bands.Control of the London Trained Bands was the most strategically critical because they could protect the radical members of Parliament from armed intervention against them by any soldiers which Charles had near the capital. In response to the Militia Ordinance, Charles revived the Commissions of Array as a means of summoning an army instead.
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    British Civilization :The long Parliament

    Post by Lily on Sun May 17, 2009 9:46 pm


    Meeting of the Long Parliament.
    Long Parliament, 1640-60. Charles I's defeat by the Scots in the Bishops' wars diminished both his reputation and his financial resources, leaving him with no option but to summon Parliament in November 1640. But the initiative was seized by his critics, who impeached his chief minister,Strafford,and pushed through a bill forbidding the dissolution of Parliament without its own consent. Further Acts, in mid-1641, abolished the instruments of prerogative rule, such as Star Chamber,outlawed prerogative taxation, and provided for triennial parliaments,thereby restoring the traditional constitution. From 1648 England was governed by the ‘Rump’of the Long Parliament, which executed the king, abolished the monarchy and House of Lords, and declared a republic. Cromwell called in troops to expel the Rump in February 1653. The Long Parliament remained in abeyance until 1659, when the army generals briefly recalled the Rump.But not until early 1660, when Monck ordered the readmission of the excluded members, did the full house reassemble. In March 1660 the Long Parliament voted to dissolve itself.

    Session of the English Parliament summoned in November 1640 by Charles I,so named to distinguish it from the Short Parliament of April – May 1640. Charles called the session to raise the money needed for his war against the Scots. Resistant to Charles's demands, the Parliament caused the king's advisers to resign and passed an act forbidding its own dissolution without its members' consent. Tension between the king and Parliament increased until the English Civil War broke out in 1642. After the king's defeat (1646), the army, led by Thomas Pride,exercised political power and in 1648 expelled all but 60 members of the Long Parliament. The remaining group, called the Rump, brought Charles to trial and execution (1649); it was forcibly ejected in 1653.In 1659, after the end of Oliver Cromwell's protectorate, the Parliament was reestablished; those who were excluded in 1648 were restored to membership. The Parliament dissolved itself in 1660.

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    Tudors Monarchs:Family Tree

    Post by Lily on Sun May 17, 2009 1:39 am

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    British Civilization:War of the Roses

    Post by Lily on Sun May 17, 2009 12:38 am


    Wars of the Roses, traditional name given to the intermittent struggle (1455–85) for the throne of England between the noble houses of York (whose badge was a white rose) and Lancaster (later associated with the red rose).About the middle of the 15th cent. Richard, duke of York, came to the fore as leader of the opposition to the faction (William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk; Edmund Beaufort, duke of Somerset; and the queen, Margaret of Anjou) that controlled the weak Lancastrian king Henry VI.The Yorkists gained popular support as a result of discontent over thefailure of English arms in the Hundred Years War and over thecorruption of the court, discontent reflected in the rebellion of Jack Cade in 1450. Also in that year Suffolk was murdered, and the duke of Yorkforced the king to recognize his claim as heir to the throne. In 1453 the king became insane, and the birth of a son to Margaret of Anjoudisplaced York as heir. The duke was appointed protector, but when theking recovered in 1454, York was excluded from the royal council. He resorted to arms.The opposing factions met (1455) at St.Albans—usually taken as the first battle of the Wars of the Roses.Somerset was killed, leaving Queen Margaret at the head of the defeated royal party, and York again served as protector for a short period (1455–56). By 1459 both parties were once more in arms. The following year the Yorkists defeated and captured the king at the battle of Northampton. The duke of York hurried to London to assert his claims to the throne, which were, by laws of strict inheritance, perhaps better than those of the king himself. A compromise was effected by which Henry remained king and York and his heirs were declared successors.
    Queen Margaret, whose son was thus disinherited, raised an army and defeated (1460) the Yorkists at Wakefield. York was killed in this battle, and his claims devolved upon his son Edward, but Richard Neville, earl of Warwick,became the real leader of the Yorkist party. Margaret's army rescued the king from captivity in the second battle of St. Albans (Feb.,1461), but Edward meanwhile secured a Yorkist victory at Mortimer's Cross, marched into London unopposed, and assumed the throne as Edward IV.
    The Lancastrians, after their defeat at Towton (Mar., 1461), continued (with Scottish aid) to raise resistance in the north until 1464. The deposed Henry was captured (1465) and put into the Tower of London.Although the Lancastrian cause now seemed hopeless, a quarrel broke out between Warwick and Edward IV after the latter's marriage to Elizabeth Woodville in 1464. Warwick and the king's brother George, duke of Clarence,allied against Edward, fled to France (1470), and there became reconciled with Margaret of Anjou. Supported by Louis XI of France,they crossed to England and restored Henry VI to the throne. Edward fled, but with the aid of Charles the Bold, duke of Burgundy, returned to England in 1471, regained London, and recaptured Henry. In the ensuing battles of Barnet and Tewkesbury (1471), Warwick and Henry's son, Edward, were killed. Margaret was imprisoned. Soon thereafter Henry VI died, probably slain at the orders of Edward IV. After 12 relatively peaceful years, Edward IV was succeeded (1483) by his young son Edward V, but soon the boy's uncle Richard, duke of Gloucester, usurped the throne as Richard III.Opposition to Richard advanced the fortunes of Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, now the Lancastrian claimant. In 1485, Henry landed from France, defeated and killed Richard at Bosworth Field, and ascended the throne as Henry VII.
    Henry VII's marriage to Edward IV's daughter, Elizabeth, united the houses of Lancaster and York. Except for various efforts during Henry's reign to place Yorkist pretenders on the throne, the Wars of the Roses were ended. It is generally said that with them ended the era of feudalism in England, since the nobles who participated suffered heavy loss of life and property and were too weak, as a class, to contest the strong monarchy of the Tudors. The middle and lower classes were largely indifferent to the struggle and relatively untouched by it.
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    Tudor monarchs of England 2

    Post by Lily on Sat May 16, 2009 11:14 pm

    Tudor monarchs of England
    The six Tudor monarchs were:
    ImageNameClaim to the throneBirth dateAccession dateDeath dateSpouse(s)
    Henry VIIDescent from Edward III of EnglandJanuary 28, 1457August 22, 1485 (crowned October 30, 1485)April 21, 1509Elizabeth of York
    Henry VIIISon of Henry VIIJune 28, 1491April 21, 1509 (crowned June 24, 1509)January 28, 1547(I) Catherine of Aragon, (II) Anne Boleyn, (III) Jane Seymour, (IV) Anne of Cleves, (V) Catherine Howard, (VI) Catherine Parr
    Edward VISon of Henry VIII by Jane SeymourOctober 12, 1537January 28, 1547 (crowned February 20, 1547)July 6, 1553
    JaneGreat granddaughter of Henry VII, Henry VIII's sister's granddaughter Mary Brandon (née Tudor), Duchess of Suffolk1537July 10, 1553 never crownedFebruary 12, 1554 executedLord Guildford Dudley
    Mary IDaughter of Henry VIII by Catherine of AragonFebruary 18, 1516July 19, 1553 (crowned October 1, 1553)November 18, 1558Philip II of Spain
    Elizabeth IDaughter of Henry VIII by Anne BoleynSeptember 7, 1533November 17, 1558 (crowned January 15, 1559)March 24, 1603
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    Tudor Monarchs of England

    Post by Lily on Sat May 16, 2009 11:10 pm




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    British Civilization: Tudor Dynasty

    Post by Lily on Sat May 16, 2009 10:47 pm

    Henry Tudor (ruled 1485–1509) traced his royal blood through his mother, Margaret Beaufort, who was a descendant of John of Gaunt,the younger son of Edward III (ruled 1327–1377). After the death of Henry, Prince of Wales, son of Henry VI (ruled 1470–1471), in 1471,Henry Tudor was the surviving male heir of the house of Lancaster. In 1485 he deposed the usurper, Richard III (ruled 1483–1485) at the Battle of Bosworth Field,and was crowned Henry VII. Henry survived numerous plots early in his reign but seemed secure on the throne by 1500. His heir, Prince Arthur (born 1486) died in 1502 and his brother, Henry, duke of York,succeeded to the throne in April 1509 as Henry VIII, shortly after marrying his brother's widow, Catherine of Aragón. Henry's desire for a male heir led him, in the late 1520s, to seek a divorce from his wife.This could only be achieved by breaking with the Roman Catholic Church and thus heralded the beginning of the English Reformation.Henry died in 1547, leaving the throne to Edward VI, his nine-year-old son by his third wife, Jane Seymour. Edward actively supported Protestant reform but on his premature death in 1553, the throne passed to his elder sister, Mary, the daughter of Catherine of Aragón, despite efforts to place the Protestant Lady Jane Grey on the throne. Mary restored Catholicism and in 1554 married the Spanish prince, who became King Philip II in 1556. Mary died childless in 1558 and the throne passed to Elizabeth, Henry VIII's daughter by his second wife, Anne Boleyn.Elizabeth again broke from Rome and asserted her authority by refusing to marry or name her successor. The second half of Elizabeth's reign was dominated by war with Spain from 1585 over English support for Philip's rebellious Dutch subjects. Elizabeth survived the plots of her Stuart rival, Mary, Queen of Scots (whom she had executed in 1587) and the Spanish Armada of 1588. Despite a decade of war, factional intrigue at court, and economic crisis,it was Elizabeth's greatest achievement to pass the throne peacefully to her chosen successor, James VI of Scotland, who became James I of England in 1603.
    Tudor, royal family that ruled England from 1485 to 1603. Its founder was Owen Tudor, of a Welsh family of great antiquity, who was a squire at the court of Henry V and who married that king's widow, Catherine of Valois. Their eldest son, Edmund, was created (1453) earl of Richmond, married Margaret Beaufort(a descendant of John of Gaunt), and had a posthumous son, Henry, who assumed the Lancastrian claims and ascended the throne as Henry VII after defeating Richard III at Bosworth Field (1485). By his marriage to Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV,Henry united the Lancastrian and Yorkist claims to the throne.Of his children, his daughter Margaret Tudor Mary of England) married Louis XII of France; and his surviving son succeeded him (1509) on the throne as Henry VIII. All three of Henry VIII's children,Edward VI, Mary I, and Elizabeth I,were rulers of England. Following the death of Edward VI, there was an unsuccessful attempt to place Mary of England's granddaughter, Lady Jane Grey,upon the throne. The reign of the Tudors was distinguished by considerable governmental reorganization, which strengthened the power of the monarchy; the rise of England as a naval power and a corresponding growth in the sense of national pride; and the Reformation of the English church with attendant religious strife. It was a period of a remarkable flowering of English literature and scholarship. Upon the death of Elizabeth I (1603), the Tudor dynasty was succeeded by the house of Stuart, whose claim to the throne derived from Margaret Tudor. Among the noted historians of the Tudor period are Geoffrey Rudolph Elton, Sir John Ernest Neale, and Albert Frederick Pollard.

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    British Civilization:Tudor Period

    Post by Lily on Sat May 16, 2009 10:33 pm

    Tudor Period
    The Tudor period usually refers to the period between 1485 and 1603, specifically in relation to the history of England. This coincides with the rule of the Tudor dynasty in England whose first monarch was Henry VII (1457 – 1509). The term is often used more broadly to include Elizabeth I's reign (1558 – 1603), although this is often treated separately as the Elizabethan era.



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    British Civilization:Elizabethan era

    Post by Lily on Sat May 16, 2009 10:19 pm

    Elizabethan Era

    1558–1603
    Elizabethan era is associated with Queen Elizabeth I's reign (1558–1603) and is often considered to be the golden age in English history. It was the height of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of English poetry and literature. This was also the time during which Elizabethan theatre flourished and William Shakespeare and many others, composed plays that broke free of England's past style of plays and theatre. It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became the national mindset of all the people. It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland.
    The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly because of the contrasts with the periods before and after. It was a brief period of largely internal peace between the English Reformation and the battles between Protestants and Catholics and the battles between parliament and the monarchy that engulfed the seventeenth century. The Protestant/Catholic divide was settled, for a time, by the Elizabethan Religious Settlement,and parliament was not yet strong enough to challenge royal absolutism.
    England was also well-off compared to the other nations of Europe. The Italian Renaissance had come to an end under the weight of foreign domination of the peninsula. France was embroiled in its own religious battles that would only be settled in 1598 with the Edict of Nantes.
    In part because of this, but also because the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent, the centuries long conflict between France and England was largely suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign.The one great rival was Spain, with which England clashed both in Europe and the Americas in skirmishes that exploded into the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604. An attempt by Philip II of Spain to invade England with the Spanish Armada in 1588 was famously defeated, but the tide of war turned against England with an unsuccessful expedition to Portugal and the Azores, the Drake-Norris Expedition of 1589. Thereafter Spain provided some support for Irish Catholics in a debilitating rebellion against English rule, and Spanish naval and land forces inflicted a series of reversals against English offensives. This drained both the English Exchequer and economy that had been so carefully restored under Elizabeth's prudent guidance. English commercial and territorialexpansion would be limited until the signing of the Treaty of London the year following Elizabeth's death.
    England during this period had a centralised, well-organised, and effective government, largely a result of the reforms of Henry VII and Henry VIII. Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade.




    Last edited by Lily on Sat May 16, 2009 10:35 pm; edited 1 time in total
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    Phonetics: Teaching intonation - the theories behind intonation

    Post by Lily on Wed May 06, 2009 12:18 pm

    Teaching intonation - the theories behind intonation
    Definitions
    1. Tone - the rise and fall of the voice. Tune/Pitch variation.An oscilloscope will give an oscillograph of speech. The frequency will be shown by the closeness of the waves (high frequency will be shown by waves which are closer together).
    2. The volume (strength of signal) will be shown by the height of the waves. The height of the note depends on the speed of opening and closing of the vocal cords. More vibrations of the larynx (up to 800 per sec) show up more compact waves. The first thing that people (Daniel Jones, Kindom, Pike) looked at was pitch variation.Crude rules (Wh Qs fall; Yes/No Qs rise) based on introspection (what do I say?) rather than data. Those who have collected data come up with interesting findings:

    Does intonation tell us what speech function is?
    Many authors of intonation practice books [ e.g. O'Connor and Arnold in "Intonation of Colloquial English" or Cook in "Active Intonation"and "Using Intonation" ] provide exercises where speech functions such as polite requests or confirmation questions dictate the intonation patterns which listeners should expect or speakers should employ.However, the findings of some research projects - most notably the Scottish Intonation Project - are that the relationships between intonation patterns [such as the tones categorized by O'Connor & Arnold] and speech functions are not so predictable.
    Clear instances of rising tune -
    1. Echo questions e.g. you what?
    2. Challenging e.g. on Monday?
    3. Conciliation: Oh really?
    ATTITUDE: O'Connor & Arnold believe that intonation goes with attitude. They list 500 different attitudes. They have 4 Main Tunes.
    Attitude is not conveyed by pitch alone.[b]There's more to context than just pitch.

    Note: Paralinguistic features identified by Gillian Brown. Variables include:
    pitch span, placing in voice range, tempo, loudness, voice setting (unmarked,breathy, creaky) articulatory setting (unmarked/tense), articulatory precision (precise/slurred/unmarked), lip setting (pursed/smiling),direction of pitch (rise/unmarked), timing (unmarked/extended), Pause (unmarked/pause).

    These features are correlated with descriptions from novels: replied/said, retorted/exclaimed, important/pompous/responsible, dadly/depressed/miserable, excited, anxious/worried/nervous,shrill/shriek/scream,warmly, coldly, thoughtfully, sexily,crossly/angrily, queried/echoed.
    Gillian Brown uses feature analysis (+ - or /) to make the connections. The idea of [b]"Para-Language" is from Abacrombie. Desmond Morris has written a popular book on the subject -English people converse at 24 inches apart.

    The importance of intonation in social interaction
    TURN-TAKING: Giving the floor to another person or taking your turn in a conversation: rise and fall are used as a signal for when to speak and when not. Remain at a high pitch if you want to continue talking. A fall shows completion.
    INFORMATION STRUCTURE (See O'Connor): [b]Major stress itemsthe most important words in the sentence: they point to the new/unknown information in the sentence. Michael Halliday has done most work on this.
    Note that one function of intonation is stress. The tonic (stressed item) is the item which has the greatest amount of pitch movement on it.
    Implications for teaching English pronunciation
    Many linguists and teachers suggest that teachers should focus on teaching STRESS rather than RISE & FALL since there is a massive difference between how one person and another perceives an utterance. You need a machine to determine whether it's a rise or a fall.
    At higher levels - for example, pronunciation sessions for learners involved in the language of negotiation or presentation in fields such as business or education, emphasis should also be given to TOPIC STRUCTURE - also related to turn-taking.
    Topic Switching:
    Start high. When people switch tack, they mark it with their voice.
    CONCLUSION: Teachable items are
    1.Sentence STRESS

    2.Contrastive STRESS.

    Distinguish between production and comprehension in your teaching.
    Teach intonation in context.
    e.g. being angry - use model dialogues to represent particular functions of the voice. Some practice in linking intonation patterns to attitude will probably help in clearer communication of meaning in spite of the findings of the Scottish Intonation Project.
    Use of "dialogues" as English pronunciation teaching materials
    [b]Could a prose text have been used to equal effect or does the target depend heavily on face to face communication?
    Many dialogues in English coursebooks are written specifically for grammar demonstration on the one hand and conversation-facilitation on the other. In each case, useful vocabulary is also demonstrated.
    Colin Mortimer's dialogues in The Cambridge elements of Pronunciation
    series (e.g. "Stress Time", "Weak Forms", "Link Up" and "Clusters") include single lexical items and conversational phrases i.e. some very essential features of speaker/listener interaction.
    The importance of meaningful contexts and the relevance of intonation practice
    How important is it to memorize dialogues incorporating these different objectives? Remember Monsieur le Surveillant's son in Algeria who memorized the whole book. Ask him where he lives and he's very puzzled!Remember Hasdrubel in an English Primary School. His family has moved from Spain. He has mastered phonics and look and say and his reading appears to be fluent, though he has a total lack of intonation & stress. He has no idea what the words mean!
    Remember the gentleman who can impress us by instantly recalling sporting facts. Try him on international politics. His memory training permits him to recall every date associated with countless events -some trivial and some important. What he is almost totally unable to do is to link information and to evaluate what is trivial and important in relation to a further goal or greater purpose. The ability to select according to priority and to combine information in other than a chronological sequence appears to be missing.

    Linking intonation practice to practice in grammatical accuracy
    Although books for practising English syntax in written form such as Intermediate English Grammar have their purpose, we are failing as teachers if we do not provide learners with the phonological rehearsal and memory training needed to achieve accuracy in oral English. Many important opportunities were lost to learners when language laboratory pattern drills (of the more meaningful variety) went out of fashion. Coupled with practice in stress and intonation, these drills can contribute far more effectively to communication skills than libraries of materials described as"authentic" - which often do not require learners to produce any sounds or syntactic forms at all.
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    Sorbonne University :Laboratory of Phonetics and Phonology Paris 3

    Post by Lily on Mon Apr 20, 2009 9:33 pm

    Acoustic phonetics

    http://masterphonetique.blogspot.com/
    http://lpp.univ-paris3.fr/presentation/presentation-eng.htm

    Here 's a website to check your English Pronunciation:
    http://www.howjsay.com

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    Re: Modules Taught

    Post by bousaada on Mon Apr 20, 2009 1:04 am

    thank u very much for this lecteur
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    Timeline of the Kings and Queens of England

    Post by Lily on Fri Apr 03, 2009 11:07 pm

    Interesting Fact
    The only time when there was no King or Queen in Britain was when the country was a republic between 1649 and 1660. (In 1649 King Charles I was executed and Britain became a Republic for eleven years. The monarchy was restored in 1660.)
    The Normans
    (1066 - 1154)


    • King William I, the Conqueror 1066 - 1087
    • King Henry I 1100 - 1135
    • King Stephen 1135 - 1154
    • Empress Matilda 1141
    Plantagenets
    (1154 - 1399)


    • King Henry II 1154 - 1189
    • King Richard I the Lionheart 1189 - 1199
    • King John 1 1199 - 1216
    • King Henry III 1216 - 1272
    • King Edward I 1272 - 1307
    • King Edward II 1307 - 1327
    • King Edward III 1327 - 1377
    • Richard II 1377 - 1399
    The House of Lancaster
    (1399 - 1461)


    • Henry IV 1399 - 1413
    • Henry V 1413 - 1422
    • Henry VI 1422 - 1461, 1470 - 1471
    The House of York
    (1461 - 1485)


    • King Edward IV 1461 -1470, 1471 - 1483
    • King Edward V 1483 - 1483
    • King Richard III 1483 - 1485
    The Tudors
    (1485 -1603)


    • King Henry VII 1485 - 1509
    • King Henry VIII 1509 - 1547
    • King Edward VI 1547 - 1553
    • Jane Grey 1554
    • Queen Mary I (Bloody Mary) 1553 - 1558
    • Queen Elizabeth I 1558 - 1603
    The Stuarts
    (1603 - 1649) (1660 - 1714)


    • James I 1603 - 1625
    • Charles I 1625 - 1649
    • Charles II 1660 - 1685
    • James II 1685 - 1688
    • William III 1688 - 1702 and Queen Mary II 1688 - 1694
    • Queen Anne 1702 - 1714
    The House of Hanovarians
    (1714 -1901)


    • King George I 1714 - 1727
    • King George II 1727 - 1760
    • King George III 1760 - 1820
    • King George IV 1820 - 1830
    • King William IV 1830 - 1837
    • Queen Victoria 1837 - 1901
    Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and The Windsors
    (1901 -1910) (1910 - Today)


    • King Edward VII 1901 - 1910
    • King George V 1910 - 1936
    • King Edward VIII June 1936
    • King George VI 1936 - 1952
    • Queen Elizabeth II 1952 - present day
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    The British Parliament

    Post by Lily on Fri Apr 03, 2009 10:20 pm

    We live in a democratic country, which means we all have a say in how the country is run. Parliament represents the people. It is where we send our chosen representatives to represent our views in the House of Commons.
    What is Parliament?
    Parliamentis where politicians (MPs) meet to decide laws and make decisions forthe United Kingdom. It is not the same as the Government (which runsthe country). One of the jobs Parliament does is to check that theGovernment is running the country properly.
    What is the job of Parliament?
    The main functions of Parliament are:

    • to pass laws
    • to provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government
    • to scrutinise government policy and administration, including proposals for expenditure
    • to debate the major issues of the day
    Parliament is made up of three parts:

    1. The Queen
    2. The House of Lords
    3. The House of Commons
    The Queen

    The Queen is the official Head of State. Britain has a constitutional monarchy where the Queen only rules symbolically; in reality, power belongs to Parliament. So, although the Queen 'opens'Parliament each year and laws are passed in her name, the Queen herself plays no part in determining decisions made in Parliament.The Queen has the final say on whether a bill becomes law.
    The last Monarch to reject a law that was wanted by both Houses of Parliament was Queen Anne. She died in 1715.
    The House of Lords

    The House of Lords is made up of people who have inherited family titles and those who have been given titles because of their outstanding work in one field or another. There are 675 members of the Lords.
    The main job of the House of Lords is to 'double check' new laws to make sure they are fair and will work.
    The House of Commons

    The House of Commons has 659 members who have been elected by local residents to represent an area of the country in Parliament. The members are called MPs (Members of Parliament). Each MP represents one of 659 constituencies (areas) in the UK and is a member of a political party, such as New Labour or the Conservative party.The Commons is the most important place for discussing policies and making laws.

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    Houses of Parliament

    Post by Lily on Fri Apr 03, 2009 9:53 pm

    The House of Lords and the House of Commons meet in the Houses of Parliament, located next to the River Thames in London.


    (Photograph taken from across the river.)
    There are more than 1,000 rooms and more than two miles of corridors!
    The clock tower is the most photographed part of the Houses of Parliament. It houses five bells. The biggest and most famous bell is called Big Ben.

    The Houses of Parliament is also called the Palace of Westminster as it is and was a royal palace. The last monarch to live here, Henry VIII,moved out in 1512. Parliament has met in the Palace of Westminster since around 1550.








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    Grammar: Adverbs 2

    Post by Lily on Fri Apr 03, 2009 9:00 pm

    Adverbs We Can Do Without
    Review the section on Being Concise for some advice on adverbs that we can eliminate to the benefit of our prose: intensifiers such as very, extremely, and really that don't intensify anything and expletive constructions ("There are several books that address this issue.")
    Kinds of Adverbs
    Adverbs of Manner

    She moved slowly and spoke quietly.

    Adverbs of Place

    She has lived on the island all her life.

    She still lives there now.

    Adverbs of Frequency

    She takes the boat to the mainland every day.
    She often goes by herself.

    Adverbs of Time

    She tries to get back before dark.
    It's starting to get dark now.She finished her tea first.
    She left early.

    Adverbs of Purpose


    • She drives her boat slowly to avoid hitting the rocks.
    • She shops in several stores to get the best buys.
    Positions of Adverbs
    One of the hallmarks of adverbs is their ability to move around in a sentence. Adverbs of manner are particularly flexible in this regard.

    -Solemnly
    the minister addressed her congregation.
    -The minister solemnly addressed her congregation.

    -The minister addressed her congregation solemnly.

    The following adverbs of frequency appear in various points in these sentences:

    -Before the main verb: I never get up before nine o'clock.
    -Between the auxiliary verb and the main verb: I have rarely written to my brother without a good reason.
    -Before the verb used to: I always used to see him at his summer home.

    Indefinite adverbs
    of time can appear either before the verb or between the auxiliary and the main verb:

    -He finally showed up for batting practice.

    -She has recently retired.

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    Grammar: Adverbs

    Post by Lily on Fri Apr 03, 2009 8:32 pm

    Definition of adverbs
    Adverbs are words that modify :


    • a verb (He drove slowly. — How did he drive?)
    • an adjective (He drove a very fast car. — How fast was his car?)
    • another adverb (She moved quite slowly down the aisle. — How slowly did she move?)
    As we will see, adverbs often tell when, where, why, or under whatconditions something happens or happened. Adverbs frequently end in -ly; however, many words and phrases not ending in -ly serve an adverbial function and an -ly ending is not a guarantee that a word is an adverb. The words lovely, lonely, motherly, friendly, neighborly, for instance, are adjectives:

    • That lovely woman lives in a friendly neighborhood.
    If a group of words containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb (modifying the verb of a sentence), it is called an Adverb Clause:

    • When this class is over, we're going to the movies.
      When a group of words not containing a subject and verb acts as an adverb, it is called an adverbial phrase. Prepositional phrases frequently have adverbial functions (telling place and time, modifying the verb):

    • He went to the movies.
    • She works on holidays.
    • They lived in Canada during the war.
    And Infinitive phrases can act as adverbs (usually telling why):

    • She hurried to the mainland to see her brother.
    • The senator ran to catch the bus.
    But there are other kinds of adverbial phrases:

    • He calls his mother as often as possible.
    Adverbs can modify adjectives, but an adjective cannot modify an adverb. Thus we would say that "the students showed a really wonderful attitude" and that "the students showed a wonderfully casual attitude" and that "my professor is really tall, but not "He ran real fast."
    Like adjectives, adverbs can have comparative and superlative forms to show degree.

    • Walk faster if you want to keep up with me.

    • The student who reads fastest will finish first.
    We often use more and most, less and least to show degree with adverbs:

    • With sneakers on, she could move more quickly among the patients.
    • The flowers were the most beautifully arranged creations I've ever seen.

    • She worked less confidently after her accident.

    • That was the least skillfully done performance I've seen in years.
    The as — as construction can be used to create adverbs that express sameness or equality: "He can't run as fast as his sister."
    A handful of adverbs have two forms, one that ends in -ly and one that doesn't. In certain cases, the two forms have different meanings:

    • He arrived late.

    • Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything.
    In most cases, however, the form without the -ly ending should be reserved for casual situations:

    • She certainly drives slow in that old Buick of hers.
    • He did wrong by her.
    • He spoke sharp, quick, and to the point.
    Adverbs often function as intensifiers, conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to something. Intensifiers are said to have three different functions: they can emphasize, amplify, or downtone. Here aresome examples:
    Emphasizers:


    • I really don't believe him.
    • He literally wrecked his mother's car.

    • She simply ignored me.

    • They're going to be late, for sure.
    Amplifiers:

    • The teacher completely rejected her proposal.

    • I absolutely refuse to attend any more faculty meetings.

    • They heartily endorsed the new restaurant.

    • I so wanted to go with them.

    • We know this city well.
    Downtoners:

    • I kind of like this college
    • Joe sort of felt betrayed by his sister.
    • His mother mildly disapproved his actions.

    • We can improve on this to some extent.

    • The boss almost quit after that.

    • The school was all but ruined by the storm.
    Adverbs (as well as adjectives) in their various degrees can be accompanied by premodifiers:

    • She runs very fast.
    • We're going to run out of material all the faster

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    How Britain is Governed?

    Post by Lily on Fri Apr 03, 2009 8:04 pm

    Who runs the UK?
    The British government runs the UK. The leader of the government is the Prime Minister.
    Parliamentary democracy
    Great Britain (UK) is a parliamentary democracy with a constitutional Monarch as Head of State.The principle behind British democracy is that the people elect Members of Parliament (MPs) to the House of Commons in London at a general election, held no more than five years apart.Most MPs belong to a political party, and the party with the largest number of MPs in the House of Commons forms the government.

    Houses of Parliament
    For the first time since 1707, the people of Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland have more say over what happens in their countries, the UK Parliament has devolved (given away) some of its powers to other national and regional bodies. It is only England, that doesn't have its own parliament. Issues that effect England are decided by the UK government, which consists of MPs from all over the UK.
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    Re: Modules Taught

    Post by Lily on Sun Mar 22, 2009 11:28 am

    One Symbol for Every Sound
    by WENKAI TAY
    Imagine what would happen if professional linguists came up with the ultimate alphabet system a system that could spell out any sound in any human language.
    They already have.
    While linguists may not have come up with the perfect alphabet, they havedeveloped a systematic way of transcribing virtually every human sound[b] on the planet with a creation known as the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA).
    Background info about IPA
    The International Phonetic Alphabet was created by the International Phonetic Association (also IPA), formed by a group of English and French linguists way back in 1886. The alphabet has gone through several revisions: while the bulk of it is based on the 1989 Kiel Convention, some changes were made as late as 1996. Many people have suggested improvements, but the IPA in its current form serves its purpose admirably.
    The mission of the Association is to set out "one symbol for every sound,one sound for every symbol". As one might imagine, this involvescreating a lot of symbols, as well as eliminating confusing digraphslike "sh" and "ch".
    Coming up with a table that claims to contain all the sounds in the world is a daunting task. Fortunately, linguists have thought of a systematic way of generating these sounds, based on the way they are pronounced (their manner of articulation) and where in the mouth or throat they are pronounced (their place of articulation). With this simple strategy, they have devised symbols for every conceivable sound, even those truly bizarre ones.
    Because of the precision the IPA affords, it is used in everything fromlanguage journals to dictionaries. You may have seen the "funnysymbols" of the IPA in the preface of your English dictionary. In fact,you probably already know how to pronounce many of the symbols in theIPA. The symbols b, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, s, t, v and z arepronounced very much like their counterparts in English. There are afew differences, of course; the symbol [j], for example, is pronouncedlike a "y" as in "yes" or "yawn".
    The benefits of such a universal system like the IPA are clear enough. Itgives linguists a common code with which to talk about the sounds ofthe world's languages. But while the International Phonetic Alphabetwas designed by professional linguists, its use is not restricted toexperts.
    Why use the IPA?
    Everyone involved in learning or teaching languages can use the IPA, because its underlying principles are simple and intuitive.
    As a learner, you are often flooded with so much information regardingsounds. And certain sounds are foreign to you, because it doesn'tappear in your language's inventory of sounds. That's why it's easy tocome up with fanciful ideas about how a particular sound is produced.Without the IPA, one can only use very vague, imprecise andunflattering terms to describe a sound, like "rough", "guttural", "agagging sound", "a clucking sound", "a choking sound", or "midwaybetween a cough and a burp".

    You can use the IPA to transcribe sounds when learning a foreign language.Because the IPA already has a symbol for any sound you might need, youdon't need to rack your brains trying to think up a new one. Using theIPA as a transcription tool also reduces ambiguity, which means thatyou can always read your written notes weeks after you made them.

    Teachers with some background in phonetics or linguistics can provide IPAtranscriptions to accompany the material used in class. This is helpfulwhen the language being taught does not have a written form, or if thewritten form is too cumbersome for beginners to use, like the Chineseor Devanagari scripts.
    Pronouncing consonants
    If you've learned a language through language books, you may have come across vague descriptions of what a certain consonant sounds like. An example of this goes: "This sound is similar to 'ch' in the Scottish'loch', but gargled slightly, and pronounced further back in the mouth."
    Reading that description gives you no better an idea of what the consonantsounds like than when you first started. It's the author's futileattempt at giving you a feel of what it sounds like without the benefitof an audio recording.

    The International Phonetic Alphabet, however, allows you to learn how topronounce that sound fairly accurately. The IPA chart organizesconsonants according to the way they are pronounced (see Figure 1).Consonants with the same place of articulation are arranged in the samecolumn, while consonants with the same manner of articulation arearranged in the same row. This generates a formidable-looking matrix ofconsonant sounds.

    Figure 1. IPA Table of Consonants
    Some entries in this consonant matrix contain two consonant sounds. These consonants differ in terms of voicing;the entry on the left is unvoiced, while the entry on the right isvoiced. Voicing refers to whether your voice is "switched on" (vocalcords vibrate) when pronouncing a consonant. For example, [b] is /b/ voiced, but [p] is not. Place your fingers on your Adam's apple andfeel the difference.
    Using this chart, you can learn to pronounce that mysterious "ch" sounddescribed earlier. The consonant in question can be represented by [x],the symbol for a velar fricative.
    What's a velar fricative?
    The word "velar" refers to the sound's place of articulation, or which partin your mouth or throat a sound comes from. Consonants produced in thesame part of your mouth are arranged in the same column of the IPAconsonants chart.
    As you look down the velar column, you discover that you already know somevelar consonants, namely [k] and [g]. Pronounce a [k] sound and feelthe position in your mouth where the sound is coming from. Your lipsand your teeth are not touching each other, but there is a tighteningof some parts inside your mouth. You have just created a constrictionaround your velum, without knowing where your velum is.

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    Grammar :Prepositional Phrases

    Post by Lily on Sat Mar 21, 2009 12:33 am

    Prepositional Phrases
    Prepositional phrases modify nouns and verbs while indicating various relationships between subjects and verbs. They are used to color and inform sentences in powerful ways.
    What are the Parts of a Prepositional Phrase?
    In simplest terms, prepositional phrases consist of a preposition and an object of a preposition. Prepositions are indeclinable words that introduce the object of a prepositional phrase. Indeclinable words are words that have only one possible form. For example, below is a preposition, but belows or belowing are not possible forms of below.
    The noun phrase or pronoun that follows the preposition is called the object of the preposition. For example, behind the couch is a prepositional phrase where behind is the preposition and the noun phrase the couch acts as the object of the preposition. Sometimes adjectives are used to further modify the object of the preposition, as in behind the big old smelly green couch.
    Formal Functions of Prepositions
    Prepositions perform three formal functions in sentences. They can act as an adjective modifying a noun, as an adverb modifying a verb, or as a nominal when used in conjunction with the verb form to be.
    Prepositions Functioning as Adjectives

    In the following sentences, prepositional phrases perform the function of modifying the nouns boat, pen, and car:
    Look at the boat with the blue sail.
    Please hand me the pen next to the telephone.
    Park the car beside the fence.
    Prepositions Functioning as Adverbs
    In these examples, notice how the prepositional phrases perform adverbial functions by modifying the verbs after, stalled, and won:
    The coyote runs after the rabbit.
    The car stalled despite the tune-up.
    The team won without the starting quarterback.
    Prepositions Functioning as Nominals
    In English, sometimes words function as nouns but aren't themselves nouns. These words are called nominals. Prepositions sometimes perform this important function in sentences when they are used in conjunction with the verb to be. For example:
    The park is next to the hospital.
    The student is between an A and a B.
    The fight scene is before the second act.
    Semantic Properties of Prepositions
    In semantic terms, the preposition functions to illustrate a logical, temporal, or spatial relationship between the object of the prepositional phrase and the other components of the sentence. Consider the following examples:
    The dog is asleep on his bed.
    In this example, the prepositional phrase on his bed indicates a spatial relationship between the subject dog and the object bed. If the preposition on was replaced with under or beneath the spatial relationship would be altered.
    The town hasn't been the same since the war.
    In this sentence, the prepositional phrase since the war indicates a temporal relationship between the verb phrase hasn't been the same and the object war.
    The family survived despite the accident.The prepositional phrase despite the accident in this sentence indicates a logical relationship between the survival of the family and the accident.
    List of Common Prepositions

    <blockquote>The following table lists the most commonly used prepositions in English.
    aboutaboveacrossafteragainstalongamongaround
    atbeforebehindbelowbeneathbesidebetweenbeyond
    butbydespitedownduringexceptforfrom
    ininsideintolikenearoffofon
    ontooutoutsideoverpastsincethroughthroughout
    tilltotowardunderunderneathuntilupupon
    withwithinwithout
    Responsible Use
    There are no rules that govern how much nouns and verbs can be modified in English. Often writers employ prepositional phrases excessively, creating an almost comical effect in an attempt at over clarification.The following sentence implements a string of propositional phrases to modify the verb stood.
    The old farmhouse stood for years, after the
    revolution, by the fork in the road, beyond the orange grove, over the
    wooden bridge, at the farthest edge of the family's land, toward the
    great basin, down in the valley, under the old mining town, outside the
    city's limits, and past the end of the county maintained road.
    Prepositional phrases, in theory, can modify sentences infinitely. Therefore, it is important for writers to understand their form and function in order to make appropriate stylistic choices.</blockquote>
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    Grammar :Teaching Adverbial and adjective clauses

    Post by Lily on Fri Mar 20, 2009 11:39 pm

    Teaching Adverbial and Adjective Clauses
    When teaching adverbial and adjective clauses to students, it is important to demonstrate how these types of clauses differ. While they are both dependent clauses that cannot stand on their own and thus require another independent clause to create a grammatical sentence, adverbial clauses and adjective clauses perform two distinct functions in sentences.
    Adverbial Clauses
    Adverbial clauses are dependent clauses that modify verbs and verb phrases. Adverbial clauses answer questions about the verb phrase that relate to time, location, purpose, and condition. When teaching students to identify adverbial clauses, you should ask them to consider what kinds of questions the clause answers. If the clause they are tying to identify answers the question "why?", "when?", "where?", "to what degree?", or "under what conditions?" then it is an adverbial clause. Consider the following examples of adverbial clauses:
    "The hostess wouldn't seat us because the restaurant was closed.
    The clause because the restaurant was closed answers questions about why the hostess wouldn't seat us.
    The seeds will take root wherever there is enough light.
    In this example,wherever there is enough light is an adverbial clause because it specifies where the seeds will take root.
    Sean will come to your party if you promise to let his band play.
    The adverbial clause if you promise to let my band play clarifies the conditions under which Sean will come to the party.
    Subordinate Conjunctions
    As you can see from the above examples, in most situations,adverbial clauses can be identified by the words or phrases that introduce them. Known as subordinating conjunctions, these words and phrases signify time, cause and effect, opposition and condition. If students can identify the following list of subordinate conjunctions, they will be well equipped to identify adverbial clauses in sentences:
    afteralthoughasbecausebeforeeven ifeven thoughifin order that
    onceprovided thatrather thansinceso thatthanthatthoughunless
    untilwhenwheneverwherewhereas
    wherever
    whether
    whilewhy
    Adverbial Clauses are Movable
    Another useful tool to employ when teaching adverbial and adjective clauses to students is to demonstrate how adverbial clauses are more easily movable within sentences than adjective clauses. The following examples from above can be restructured and still be grammatical:

    -The hostess wouldn't seat us because the restaurant was closed.

    -Because the restaurant was closed
    , the hostess wouldn't seat us.

    -The seeds will take root wherever there is enough light
    .

    -Wherever there is enough light
    , the seeds will take root.
    -It is important to note that when an adverbial clause precedes the sentence's independent clause, it is always separated with a comma.

    Adjective Clauses
    Adjective clauses are dependent clauses that modify nouns or pronouns. Much like adverbial clauses, students who are trying to identify adjective clauses should try to determine what kinds of questions the clause in questions answers. Adjective clauses clarify the noun or noun phrase by answering questions about "which?" or "what type of?"


    • The guitar, which was the one Elvis used to own, was found at a garage sale.
    • Whitey broke the law which lead to his incarceration.
    • Jeremy, who won the lottery, now lives in Malibu.
    In these examples, the adjective clauses provide information that answers the question of "which."
    Unlike adverbial clauses, adjective clauses typically can't be moved without constructing sentences that are ungrammatical.

    • Which was the one Elvis used to own the guitar was found at a garage sale.
    • The guitar was found at a garage sale which was the one Elvis used to own.
      Neither sentence above makes grammatical sense when the adjective clause is moved. This is a useful fact to consider when teaching students how to determine if a clause is an adverbial clause or an adjective clause. If the sentence ceases to make sense when the clause is moved, it is more likely an adjective clause rather than an adverbial clause.
    • Relative Pronouns
    Adjective clauses are typically introduced by relative pronouns. The most common relative pronouns are as follows:
    whowhomwhosewhomeverwhoever
    whicheverthatwhichwhatwhatever
    Teaching Adverbial and Adjective Clauses to Students
    Students should first understand the different functions of adverbial and adjective clauses. Adverbial clauses modify verbs and verb phrases and answer questions such as"why?", "when?", "where?","to what degree?", or "under what conditions?" Adjective clauses modify nouns and noun phrases and answer questions such as "which?" or "what type of?"
    Adverbial clauses are typically introduced by subordinate conjunctions and adjective clauses are usually introduced by relative pronouns. Being able to identify these conjunctions and pronouns will assist students in recognizing adverbial and adjective clauses.
    A final test students can use is to try to move the clause in question to another place in the sentence. Adverbial clauses are typically movable, whereas adjective clauses are rarely movable without creating an ungrammatical sentence.
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    The Sound and the Fury

    Post by Lily on Fri Mar 20, 2009 2:57 pm

    Plot introduction
    The novel takes place in the fictional Yoknapatawpha County and is split into four sections. The first is from the viewpoint of Benjy Compson, a thirty-three year old man with mental retardation. The second segment is set eighteen years earlier than the other three and is told from the point of view of Quentin Compson, the Harvard-educated student who commits suicide after a series of events involving his sister Caddy. The third is from the point of view of their cynical,embittered brother, Jason, and the fourth is from a third-person-limited-omniscient narrative point-of-view focused on Dilsey, the Compson family's black servant, and her unbiased point of view, which allows the reader to make his or her own assumptions from the actions of the other characters. Jason is also a focus in the section, but Faulkner gives glimpses of thoughts and actions from everyone in the family. The story overall summarizes the lives of people in the Compson family that has by now fallen into ruin.Many passages are written in a stream of consciousness. This novel is a classic example of the unreliable narrator technique.Most immediately obvious is the idea of a Tale told by an idiot" ,in this case Benjy,whose version of the compsons'story opens the novel. This idea can also be extended to the other two narrators,Quentin and Jason, whose narratives display their own respective varieties of idiocy. More to the point, however, the novel is recounting the death of a family, including some of its members, as well as the decline of the traditional upper-class Southern family.This is the significance of "The way to dusty death". The last line is,perhaps, the most meaningful; Faulkner later says in his speech upon being awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature that people must write about things that come from the heart, or"universal truths". Otherwise, he states, the ideas published signify nothing.
    Plot summary
    The four parts of the novel relate many of the same episodes, each from a different point of view and therefore with emphasis on different themes and events. This interweaving and nonlinear structure makes any true synopsis of the novel difficult, especially since the narrators are all unreliable in their own way, making their accounts not necessarily trustworthy at all times. Also in this novel, Faulkner uses italics to indicate points in each section where the narrative is moving into a significant moment in the past. The use of these italics can be confusing, however, as time shifts are not always marked by the use of italics, and periods of different time in each section do not necessarily stay in italics for the duration of the flashback. Thus,these time shifts can often be jarring and confusing, calling for the necessity of a particularly close reading.The general outline of the story is the decline of the Compson family, a once noble Southern family descended from U.S. Civil War hero General Compson. The family falls victim to those vices which Faulkner believed were responsible for the problems in the reconstructed South: racism, avarice, selfishness, the psychological inability of individuals to become determinants. Over the course of the thirty years or so related in the novel, the family falls into financial ruin, loses its religious faith and the respect of the town of Jefferson, and many of them die tragically.The reader may also wish to look in The Portable Faulkner for a four-page history of the Compson family. Faulkner said afterwards that he wished he had written the history at the same time he wrote The Sound and the Fury.
    Part 1: April 7, 1928
    The first section of the novel is narrated by Benjamin "Benjy" Compson, a source of shame to the family due to his mental retardation;the only characters who evidence a genuine care for him are Caddy, his older sister; and Dilsey, a matriarchal servant. His narrative voice is characterized predominantly by its nonlinearity: spanning the period 1898-1928, Benjy's narrative is a pastiche of events presented in a seamless stream of consciousness. The presence of italics in Benjy's section is meant to indicate significant shifts in the narrative. Originally Faulkner meant to use different colored inks to signify chronological breaks. This nonlinearity makes the style of this section particularly challenging, but Benjy's style develops a cadence that, while not chronologically coherent, provides unbiased insight into many characters' true motivations. Moreover, Benjy's caretaker changes to indicate the time period: Luster in the present, T.P. in Benjy's teenage years, and Versh during Benjy's infancy and childhood.In this section we see Benjy's three passions: fire, the golf course on land that used to belong to the Compson family, and his sister Caddy. But by 1928 Caddy has been banished from the Compson home after her husband divorced her because her child was not his, and the family has sold his favorite pasture to a local golf club in order to financ Quentin's Harvard education. In the opening scene, Benjy, accompanied by Luster, a servant boy, watches golfers on the nearby golf course as he waits to hear them call "caddie" - the name of his favorite sibling. When one of them calls for his golf caddie, Benjy's mind embarks on a whirlwind course of memories of his sister, Caddy, focusing on one critical scene. In 1898 when their grandmother died, the four Compson children were forced to play outside during the funeral. In order to see what was going on inside, Caddy climbed a tree in the yard, and while looking inside, her brothers—Quentin, Jason and Benjy—looked up and noticed that her underwear was muddy. How each of them reacts to this is the first insight the reader has into the trends that will shape the lives of these boys: Jason is disgusted, Quentin is appalled,and Benjy seems to have a "sixth-sense" in that he moans (he is unable to speak using words), as if sensing the symbolic nature of Caddy's dirtiness, which hints at her later sexual promiscuity. At the time the children were aged 9 (Quentin), 7 (Caddy), 5 (Jason) and 3 (Benjy).Other crucial memories in this section are Benjy's change of name (fromMaury, after his uncle) in 1900 upon the discovery of his disability; the marriage and divorce of Caddy (1910), and Benjy's castration,resulting from an attack on a girl that is alluded to briefly within this chapter when a gate is left unlatched and Benjy is out unsupervised. Readers often report trouble understanding this portion of the novel due to its impressionistic language, necessitated by Benjamin's retardation, and its frequent shifts in time and setting.
    Part 2: June 2, 1910
    Narrated by Quentin, the most intelligent and most tortured of the Compson children, the second part is probably the novel's finest example of Faulkner's narrative technique. In this section we see Quentin, a freshman at Harvard University, wander the streets of Cambridge,contemplating death and remembering his family's estrangement from his sister Caddy. Like the first section, the plot is not strictly linear, although the two interweaving storylines of Quentin at Harvard on the one hand and his memories on the other are clearly discernible.Quentin's main obsession is Caddy's virginity and purity. He is obsessed with old Southern ideals of honor and therefore is extremely protective of womenfolk, especially his sister. Therefore, when Caddy engages in sexual promiscuity, Quentin is horrified. He turns to his father for help and advice, but cynical Mr. Compson tells Quentin that virginity is invented by men and therefore should not be taken seriously. He also tells Quentin that time will heal all. Quentin spends much of his day trying to prove his father wrong, but is unable to. Shortly before Quentin left for Harvard in the fall of 1909, Caddy became pregnant with the child of Dalton Ames who is confronted by Quentin. The two fight, with Quentin losing horribly and Caddy vowing to never speak to Dalton again for Quentin's sake. Quentin tells his father that they have committed incest, but his father knows that he is lying: "and he did you try to make her do it and i i was afraid to i was afraid she might and then it wouldn't do any good"(112). Quentin's idea of incest is wrapped around the idea that, if they "could just have done something so dreadful that they would have fled hell except us" (51), he could protect his sister by joining her in whatever punishment/hardship/retribution she would be forced to endure. In his mind, he felt a need to take responsibility for Caddy's sin. Pregnant and alone, Caddy then marries Herbert Head, whom Quentin finds repulsive but Caddy is resolute: she must marry before the birth of her child. Herbert however finds out that the child is not his and sends mother and daughter away in shame. Quentin's wanderings through Harvard, as he cuts class, follow the pattern of his heartbreak over losing Caddy. For instance, he meets a small Italian immigrant girl who speaks no English. He significantly calls her "sister" and spends much of the day trying to communicate with her, and to care for her by finding her home, to no avail. He thinks sadly of the downfall and squalor of the South after the American Civil War. Ultimately, Quentin, unable to cope with the amorality of the world around him, commits suicide by jumping off a bridge into the Charles River after loading his jacket with flat-irons.While many first-time readers report Benjy's section as being difficult to understand, these same readers often find Quentin's section to be near impossible. Not only do chronological events mesh together regularly, but often (especially at the end) Faulkner completely disregards any semblance of grammar, spelling, or punctuation, instead writing in a rambling series of words, phrases, and sentences that have no separation to indicate where one thought ends and another begins. This confusion is due to Quentin's severe depression and deteriorating state of mind. The section is therefore ironic in that Quentin is an even more unreliable narrator than his brother Benjy was. Because of the staggering complexity of this section, it is often the one most extensively studied by scholars of the novel.
    Part 3: April 6, 1928
    The third portion is narrated by Jason, the youngest and least likeable of the Compson children. This section takes place the daybefore Benjy's section, on Good Friday. Of the three brothers who narrate a section, Jason's account is the most straightforward, reflecting his single-minded and calculated desire for material wealth.By 1928, Jason is the economic foundation of the family after his father's death. He supports his mother, Benjy, and Miss Quentin (Caddy's daughter) as well as the family of servants. This role has made him bitter and cynical, with little sign of the passionate sensitivity that defined his older brother or sister. He goes so far as to blackmail Caddy into making him Miss Quentin's sole guardian, then uses that role to steal the support payments that Caddy sends for her daughter.This is the first portion that is narrated in a linear fashion. It follows the course of Good Friday--a day in which Jason decides to leave work to search for Miss Quentin (Caddy's daughter), who has run away again, seemingly in pursuit of mischief. Here we see most immediately the conflict between the two predominant traits of the Compson family (which Jason's mother Caroline attributes to the difference between her and her husband's blood): on the one hand, Miss Quentin's recklessness and passion, inherited from her father and,ultimately, the Compson side; on the other, Jason's ruthless cynicism, drawn from his Mother's side. This section also gives us the clearest image of domestic life in the Compson household, which for Jason and the servants means the care of Caroline the hypochondriac and of Benjy.
    Part 4: April 8, 1928
    April 8, 1928, not coincidentally, was Easter Sunday. This section, the only without a single first person narrator,focuses on Dilsey, the powerful matriarch of the black servant family.She, in contrast to the declining Compsons, draws a tremendous amount of strength from herself and her faith, and thus stands as a proud figure amidst a dying family. It can be said that Dilsey gains her strength by looking outward (i.e. outside of one's self for support) while the Compsons grow weak by looking inward, thus imploding on themselves.On Easter, she takes her family and Benjy to the 'colored' church for the Easter service. Through her we see, in a sense, the consequences of the decadence and depravity in which the Compsons have lived for decades. Dilsey is mistreated and abused, but nevertheless remains loyal. She is the only one who cares for Benjy, as she takes him to church and tries to bring him to salvation. The preacher's sermon inspires her to weep for the Compson family, reminding her that she's seen the family through its destruction, which she is now witnessing.Meantime, the tension between Jason and Miss Quentin reaches its inevitable conclusion: the family discovers that Miss Quentin has run away in the middle of the night with a carnival worker, in the process breaking into Jason's hidden stash of cash in his closet and taking both her money (the support from Caddy, which Jason had stolen) and her money-obsessed uncle's life savings. Jason calls the police and tells them that his money has been stolen, but since it would mean admitting embezzling Quentin's money he doesn't press the issue. He therefore sets off to once again find her on his own, but loses her trail in nearby Mottson and gives her up as gone for good.The novel ends with a very powerful and unsettling image. After church, Dilsey allows her grandson Luster to drive Benjy in the family's decrepit horse and carriage (another sign of decay) to the graveyard. Luster, not caring that Benjy is so entrenched in the routine of his life that even the slightest change in route will enrage him, drives the wrong way around a monument. Benjy's hysterical sobbing and violent outburst can only be quieted by Jason, of all people, who understands how best to placate his brother. Jason slaps Luster, turns the carriage around, and Benjy suddenly becomes silent. Luster turns around to look at Benjy and sees Benjy drop his flower. Benjy's eyes are "...empty and blue and serene again."

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    Re: Modules Taught

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